IIT Delhi Start-ups E-TEX and Clensta launch antiviral protection kit for COVID-19 Care
With an ambition to provide protective cover to people in these challenging times, two IIT Delhi incubated start-ups, E-TEX and Clensta, have teamed up and launched a complete antiviral protection kit for masses at an affordable price on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s 151st Birth Anniversary. The antiviral kit, unveiled by Prof V. Ramgopal Rao, Director, IIT Delhi, consists of a novel Clensta protection lotion and hand sanitizer, E-TEX Kawach Antiviral T-Shirt, and Kawach Mask. The products are backed up by experts from the chemical and textile departments of IIT Delhi. The lotion can be used over any exposed part of the body including face and hands. The application of the product keeps the users safe from viruses by disrupting it for almost 24 hours and reduces the extended use of alcohol-based sanitizers and washing hands multiple times a day. The antiviral efficacy of the Clensta lotion was conducted at different intervals of times and found to be 99.95% effective in virus protection as per American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM)-E-1052-20.
Merging homecare & healthcare, IIT Kharagpur launches iMediX Telemedicine Technology
IIT Kharagpur launched iMediX, a telemedicine technology, developed by researchers at the Department of Computer Science & Engineering under the guidance of Prof. Jayanta Mukhopadhyay. The system integrates homecare with healthcare services from the hospital. Considering the emergent needs due to COVID-19 pandemic, the system facilitates critical healthcare support to patients at their doorsteps through remote consultation by a physician. The system is accessible by any standard internet browser and also from a mobile device. 20 The software was launched on October 2, 2020, on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti and will be integrated at the Dr B. C. Roy Technology Hospital of the Institute which provides emergency healthcare services for the campus residents and employees.
IIT Kharagpur proposes solid waste management policy during endemics
A recent study by IIT Kharagpur researchers has led to the formulation of a set of environmental recommendations for solid waste management an endemic situation. The researchers have explored the challenges faced by the solid waste management sector, typically cases in biomedical waste, plastic waste, and food waste management, during the pandemic and the underlying opportunities to fill existing loopholes in the system.
IIT Delhi-incubated start-up launches antimicrobial water storage containers ‘AqCure’
Mixing traditional science with nanotechnology, IIT Delhiincubated start-up Nanosafe Solutions has developed a range of antimicrobial, i.e., antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal water storage containers and launched it as “AqCure”, which is based on the inherent antimicrobial properties of copper. AqCure is a patented technology in which active nano-copper is released in a sustainable manner from a polymer matrix. The released copper makes the outer and inner surface of the container antimicrobial, reducing transmission of microbes upon direct contact, and making the stored water microbiologically safe. Additionally, the released copper in water is within permissible limits and thus fortifies stored water as copper is also an essential micronutrient needed for growth.
FDA-approved drug Teicoplanin found effective against main protease of novel coronavirus, says IIT Delhi study
An interesting research study at Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi conducted by the research group of Prof. Ashok Kumar Patel, which was recently published in the International Journal of Biological Macromolecules has proposed the clinically approved drug Teicoplanin as a potential therapeutic option against SARS-CoV-2. This study screened an assemblage of 23 approved drugs, which have shown leads towards being therapeutic options for COVID-19 for those having an inhibitory effect towards the main protease of the virus 3CLPro and among them, the drug Teicoplanin showed the most promising inhibition of the proteolytic activity of this main viral protease. The 3CLPro protease (3-chymotrypsin-like protease), also called the main protease of the virus, is necessary for processing the viral polyproteins and therefore has emerged as an exciting premise for the development of drugs targeting the virus.
IIT Delhi-developed facial protection equipment COVLOCK receives financial support for mass production
As the number of COVID-19 cases continues to rise, the demand for protective gear is also increasing. The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi has come up with several products for this purpose, and one such product has received financial support from Clifford Chance Business Services. ‘COVLOCK’ addresses the critical need to manufacture facial protection equipment which can effectively inhibit person-to-person transmission of the contagious virus with respiratory droplets, produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, via the mouth, nose, or eyes. It is an innovative ergonomic face shield, which can be comfortably worn for prolonged hours just like a pair of glasses. Rapid prototyping will be employed to mass produce COVLOCK at IIT Delhi for frontline workers and organisations at an ultra-low cost.
IIT Kharagpur develops AI and IoT-based diagnostic device for COPD
IIT Kharagpur has developed an affordable diagnostic intervention for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), based on the internet-of-things medical devices (IoT-MD) integrated with artificial intelligence (AI). Prof. Dipak Kumar Goswami and his research team have developed SenFlex.T, a smart mask synced with an android monitoring app through Bluetooth that can continuously monitor breathing patterns, rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood. The app is connected to a cloud computing server, where AI has been implemented to predict the severity of COPD through machine learning. COPD has been a top cause of death, second to only deaths due to heart diseases. The threat from COPD has become more acute under the COVID situation, with increased co-morbidity rates. A recent survey confirmed that the severity and mortality rates among COPD patients to be affected by the COVID-19 virus are over 63%. Moreover, the patients affected in the COVID-19 virus are more susceptible to build up various lung disorder-related diseases like COPD, Asthma etc.
AIIMS Jodhpur develops protective gears for health workers in frontline management of COVID-19
COVID-19 pandemic has become a global health crisis and one of the greatest challenges which India is facing now. Healthcare workers being in the frontline in this war are facing the occupational hazard of acquiring the infection especially during procedures with high potential for aerosol generation such as intubation, tracheostomy, bronchoscopy etc. A team lead by Prof. Sanjeev Misra, Director and CEO, AIIMS Jodhpur conceptualized and designed a protection box ‘Abhedya’ which provides enhanced protection to healthcare workers. This box is different from the conventional boxes currently available, as it is sealed from all ends and has self-sealable hand ports. The rounded smooth edges aid in effective cleaning and disinfection. A negative pressure environment can be created inside the box, which helps to dispose the aerosols contained within the box. The box is made up of transparent acrylic material with slanting roof assuring appropriate vision for the healthcare worker. The open front end and base are completely sealable with sheets. This box can be removed easily at the time of emergency, if needed. The best part is that the box can be kept over the patient’s head area for the entire duration of surgery except Head & Neck Surgeries, and intubation and extubation, both can be performed effectively with the aid of this. This device is in the process of validation and is currently in use at AIIMS Jodhpur.
IIT Kharagpur develops painless drug delivery and vaccination device
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering at IIT Kharagpur has developed a transdermal drug delivery and vaccination device capable of administering large 58 and viscous drug molecules in a painless way. The innovation by IIT Kharagpur has reduced the diameter size of the microneedles and increased the strength to withstand the skin resistive forces. The device would find extensive use in any form of transdermal medication. The micropump fabrication and design further enables increased flow rate of the drug molecules in a controlled and precise manner. Typical use could be achieved in insulin delivery or medication for diseases of the lymphatic system, skin, including some forms of cancer, or even COVID-19 vaccine said research lead Prof. Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya. The drug delivery device has been successfully tested with animals as per medical protocol. The researchers have also filed for a patent in India and published the research in IEEE and Nature journals. The research for this innovation was funded by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology and Dept. of Science of Technology, Govt. of India.
IISc develops technique for direct numerical simulation of “cough/sneeze flows” to understand transmission dynamics of COVID-19 infections
The transmission dynamics of highlycontagious respiratory diseases like COVID-19 (through coughing/ sneezing) is an open problem in the epidemiological studies of such diseases. The primary cause of COVID-19 infections is believed to be droplet transmission from an infected person to a susceptible neighbour. WHO has recommended maintaining a distance of 1-2 m from an infected person to minimize transmission to a neighbour. However, recent studies suggest that this could be an under-estimate and that the pathogen is likely to get transported over much longer distances, especially through sneezing. Thus, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 infection is the need of the hour.
There is a strong similarity between the dynamics of cough/sneeze flows and that of atmospheric clouds (especially cumulus clouds), both involving turbulent jet/plume, suspended droplets and their complex interaction including phase change and gravitational settling. IISc scientists have extensive experience in studying cumulus-cloud flows (involving experiments, theory and computation). Therefore, they are in a position to leverage their expertise in cumulus-cloud computation towards investigating cough/sneeze flows through a direct numerical simulation (DNS).For this purpose,they plan to use the existing DNS code called“MEGHA-5” (developed by S. Ravichandran and others to study cumulus clouds), with suitable modifications to include dynamics of liquid droplets of various sizes.
Contact info: Sourabh S. Diwan; firstname.lastname@example.org
A PCR-free SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection test
Currently, the most effective method available to diagnose COVID-19 is the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which directly detects the viral RNA. Although RT-PCR testing has been scaled up appreciably over the past few months, testing is still limited to designated central laboratories having expensive thermal cyclers. On the other hand, rapid antigen and antibody tests have been developed that enable testing for the virus at the point-of-care, but their accuracy does not match that of RNA-based tests. Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is developing an RNA-based test for COVID-19 that does not rely on PCR, thus obviating the need for expensive thermal cyclers. Instead, they are developing a test that relies on isothermal nucleic acid amplification of nucleic acids, which can be conducted at a constant temperature in very low-cost heating instruments. The result of the test is readable by naked eye. The envisioned accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of this test will match that of RT-PCR and the test may be conducted at various points-of-entries, e.g., airports, check posts etc.
Contact info: Bhushan Toley; email@example.com
IIT Bhubaneswar study identifies herbal phytochemicals and repurposed drugs that may act as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 for the effective treatment of COVID-19
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and tunte tree (Broussonetia papyrifera) contain various polyphenols which are proven to be beneficial for human health. Early studies indicate that green tea polyphenols exhibit anti-viral activity against a wide range of viral infections such as influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus and HIV. Moreover, green tea polyphenols are even active against dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). In addition, tunte polyphenols are already known to show antiviral activity against SARSCoV-1 and MERS.
Research scholars Rajesh Ghosh and Ayon Chakraborty working along with Dr Ashis Biswas and Dr Snehasis Chowdhuri from IIT Bhubaneswar have shown a way to combat COVID-19. They adopted various computational approaches and have demonstrated that three green tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechingallate and gallocatechin-3-gallate) and six tunte polyphenols [broussochalcone A, papyriflavonol A, 3’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3’,4’,7- trihydroxyflavane, broussoflavan A, kazinol F and kazinol J] may serve as potential inhibitors of the main protease from SARS-CoV-2. Both of the studies are part of a sanctioned project on COVID-19 research (Funding agency: HPC, IIT Delhi) and has recently been accepted in Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org
IIT Kharagpur develops e-Classroom software DEEKSHAK for Indian Academia
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur has developed e-classroom software, DEEKSHAK. The software is aimed to address operational issues faced during online teaching. DEEKSHAK is an online synchronous e-teaching platform that primarily uses one-way communication for bandwidth efficiency. The focus, hence instead of being all students participating in a class as in a meeting software, is on the teacher and the learning materials. Prof. Raja Datta of Electronics and Electrical Communication Department with his postgraduate students developed the software, the current version of which can be used within a campus LAN. Teachers can also record the attendance of the students on the platform. The software has been tested at IIT Kharagpur during the initial phase of social distancing with about 40 hours of classes being conducted with a total of approximately 300 students.
IISc has made strategies for rapid suppression of COVID-19 transmission in small world communities
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has made strategies for rapid suppression of COVID-19 transmission in small world communities. The aim of the initiative in this project is to understand what policies can be implemented post-lockdown. Small world models are useful tools in Network Epidemiology. A city consists of many wards. Such cities are modelled as a Multi-Lattice Small World (MLSW) network where each ward of a city is modelled as a 2D lattice and nearby wards are connected together and simulate several interventions on MLSW. 21 A study on their effectiveness in suppressing COVID-19 on such networks revealed three key findings:
1. Usual contact tracing involves tracing the immediate contacts. If that can be enhanced to tracing the contacts and their contacts followed by sealing (TC2S), it would have a huge impact.
2. A restricted work week, such as 2-day work week, followed by a lockdown can be effective as lockdown.
3. A policy such as ward-wise sealing and opening depending on the infection levels in the ward not only has the lowest attack rate, the percentage of total population infected, but also requires the shortest time for the epidemic to end.
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IISc develops a novel modelling method of COVID-19 infections, based on population balance equation
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) develops Population Balance Equation (PBE)-based modelling of COVID-19 infections. The aim of this project is to develop and apply a predictive computational model for the COVID-19 epidemic based on a high-dimensional population balance modelling. The developed model is a paradigm shift in mathematical modelling of infectious diseases. This model is based on a high-dimensional PBE.Unlike the existing (Compartment or Network) pandemic models, the proposed model predicts the distribution of infected population across the region, the age of the infected people, the day since infection, and the severity of infection, over a period of time. Moreover, the newly developed model incorporates the immunity, premedical history, effective treatment, point-to-point movement of infected population (e.g., by air, train etc.), interactivity (community spread), hygiene and the social distancing of the population. This modelling framework introduces a multi-dimensional equation to predict the spread of pandemics with insights into the severity of infection, duration of infection, population age etc. Such insightful predictions are key for planning lockdown/unlock strategies and public health policies such as quarantine rules, hospital beds, health insurance and vaccination/ treatment scheduling. Moreover, these insights can be used to formulate science-informed policy to revive normalcy in the world, especially from the disruption induced by COVID-19. A detailed description of the predictive modelling framework can be found at: https://arxiv.org/ abs/2006.15336.
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IISc develops plasma sterilization and disinfection method for PPEs & spaces
Centre for Sustainable Technologies at Indian institute of Science (IISc) has developed Rapid Plasma Sterilization of Personal Protective Equipment (RaPS), specifically for masks used by medical first responders. In this crisis, with shortage of such masks, this device permits reuse 22 of the masks with necessary disinfection. This low-cost equipment is easy to deploy at scale, which requires only atmospheric air and electric power as input. The Centre has also developed a high throughput ozone generator, which works using cold plasma technology, for disinfection of spaces. Ozone generated from the ozonator shall be retrofitted for disinfection of spaces, both mobile and stationary.
Team Lead: Lakshminarayana Rao, Anand M Shivapuji Email: email@example.com, anandms@ iisc.ac.in
IISc develops open-source aerosol shield for intubation and anaesthesia
The virus causing COVID-19 can be transmitted through droplets of different size (less than 10 micrometres) which get airborne in the vicinity of an infected patient. The medical team which comes in proximity needs to be protected from this undesirable exposure to the virus. During a crisis, when shortage of personal protective equipment is expected, alternative solutions will be needed to protect the medical team. While placing a patient on a ventilator or anaesthesia, a tube is inserted into the patients’ airways through his/her mouth. This exposes the medical team to the air exhaled by the patient, which might carry aerosolized infectious virus. In order to prevent this situation, a transparent aerosol box is designed by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) to prevent from contaminations generated by COVID-19 positive patients.
Contact Info: Manish Arora; firstname.lastname@example.org
IISc develops cyclone separator design for compressor exit flow oil and dust particle cleanup
The onset of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented and rapid increase in demands on public health systems worldwide. Thus, it has become necessary to improve access to key medical equipment such as ventilators in order to offset reduced lung function in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Indian Institute of Science (IISc) designed a cyclone-based system for compressor exit flow oil and dust particle cleanup. The aim of this effort is to develop a cyclone-based oil droplet separator system as part of the ongoing IISc ventilator development effort, which can be used 23 to reduce the oil droplet and dust particle load on standard filters, thereby prolonging their life and reducing the requirement for frequent maintenance intervals. The device will work by spinning the droplet and dust-laden air in a tube, causing the suspended matter to move outwards towards the wall, while leaving the air in the core of the tube free of suspended matter. This clean air can then be passed through a final filtration step to render the air quality consistent with medical requirements. Contact Info: Santosh Hemachandra; email@example.com
IISc designs framework for testing strategies for COVID-19
The number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 is often used as a proxy for the actual number of COVID-19 infected cases in both public discourse and policy making. However, the number of confirmed cases depends on the testing policy, and it is important to understand how the number of positive cases obtained using different testing policies reveals the unknown ground truth. Indian Institute of Science (IISc) develops an agent-based simulation framework to evaluate and compare various testing policies, such as random symptomatic testing, contact tracing and spatially aware sampling of hotspots, as well as interventions such as lockdowns based on their output. This framework will be useful in designing and evaluating testing strategies for both inference and intervention purposes.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
IISc developing reliable COVID-19 infection rate estimator
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is in the process of developing a reliable means of estimating the prevalence rate or infection of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) within a target population. This can be used as an epidemiological or public health tool to help inform policy decisions on the appropriate interventions to impose on that population.At present, this estimator takes as input the time series formed by the number of hospitalized cases that test positive each day. The website hosting the estimator contains a basic description of the estimator. A report explaining how the estimator works is currently in preparation.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
IIT Kanpur develops HITES, a handheld Infrared thermometer, which can be used maintaining 6 ft distance
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) develops a device called HITES, a handheld infrared thermometer with enhanced safety. The device is developed at National Centre for Flexible Electronics (NCFlexE) at IIT Kanpur. It enables temperature scanning to be carried out while maintaining a 6-feet physical distance.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org
IIT Kanpur develops flexible electronic armpit thermometer
National Centre for Flexible Electronics (NCFlexE) at IIT Kanpur has developed a Flexible Electric Axillary (Armpit) Thermometer (FEAT) that enables monitoring of temperature in patients in an easy and hygienic manner even in an unconscious patient. FEAT provides a digital record on the mobile or over the cloud and never runs out of battery. In contrast to conventional thermometers, FEAT consists of two separate parts; a flexible patch worn by the patient and a cell phone-based electronic reader. The patch is safe to wear over extended periods as it does not contain either a battery or a wireless source. The patch is low cost and can be either disposed or retained for reuse by the patient afterwards. The mobile-based temperature reader provides the temperature reading instantaneously and records it, if required upon contact with the patch, and can be used with multiple patients.
Contact Info: email@example.com
IIT Tirupati developed Novel Thermal Air Sterilizer – BLAAST
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Tirupati has developed a machine to sterilise the air in a room within a few hours thereby help in combating the coronavirus which initially attacks the respiratory system. The institute has worked with industry partner, Outstazs Hospitality Solutions, a start-up based in Bengaluru and Thiruvanthapuram to develop the device while the efficacy has been proved with the help of microbiological tests at IISER Tirupati. The device can capture the surrounding air and give out sterile air by using the principal of suctionheating-recycling-purging of air. Named as BLAAST (Blower-aided air Sterilisation by Temperature), it 25 can be operated within a targeted suction of a coronavirus carrier’s exhalations (droplets, micro droplets and aerosols) from a close proximity and immediately deactivating the virus continuously by high temperature ranging between 55 to 60 degree Celsius and thereby control the spread of the contagious disease.
IISER Pune signs technology transfer MoU for low-cost ventilator
The low-cost ICU ventilator developed earlier at the Physics department of IISER Pune will now be jointly taken up by Accurate Gauging & Instruments Pvt. Ltd. and IISER Pune to be built for regulatory approvals followed by production. Towards this, a Memorandum of Understanding for transfer of technology was signed by IISER Pune and Accurate Gauging & Instruments Pvt. Ltd. on August 4, 2020. Under the terms of this agreement, the industrial partner would now build mass-producible prototypes of the ICU ventilator developed at IISER Pune for regulatory approvals.
City-scale Epidemic Simulator built by TIFR and IISc
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) have developed a city-scale agent-based simulator, for studying the spread of COVID-19 in an Indian city. The simulator has been released as an open-source software. The simulator creates a smaller scale city with 100,000 agents distributed across its municipal wards. The reduced size is so that it can run on your browser. The population distribution, employed fraction, age distribution, and household size distribution are based on the 2011 census data. Agents are assigned to households, schools or workplaces, and community spaces. The epidemic then spreads in a stochastic fashion based on meetings that happen in the interaction spaces in the synthetic city.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org
ISRO comes up with geospatial technology-based solution to combat COVID-19
Department of Space/ISRO is supporting various State Governments by providing Geospatial tools and location-based solutions to fight against COVID-19, including national level Coronavirus tracker. At the same time, ISRO also made an attempt to study various impacts due to lockdown in terms of status of atmospheric parameters and water. The department could carry out varieties of studies with different States using geospatial technology under Bhuvan Geoportal, deployed at NRSC, Hyderabad. These tools and services have been gainfully utilised by some of the State Governments in the country. Monitoring and managing COVID-19 in our country is quite complex as it has a population of more than 1.3 billion, in addition to a huge population of livestock and pets. NRSC, ISRO customised Geo-portal and developed ‘Bhuvan-COVID-19’ at national level to track the pandemic and update common public on current situation. The geoportal provides many other interesting graphic presentations at national level as part of sensitising common people on the COVID-19 situation on a regular basis, based on the data presented by MoHFW portal. While the COVID-19 dashboard depicts dynamic information of the status of the pandemic at national level, many state level applications were developed and deployed.
IIT Kharagpur develops innovative novel technology for COVID-19 rapid test
Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur have brought forth an innovative novel technology for rapid test of COVID-19. This first-of-its-kind device will bring the testing for COVID-19 out from the walls of expensive laboratories and RT-PCR machines and enable testing at affordable costs for the under-served community across the world. The technology has successfully been validated against COVID-19 test results run on RT-PCR machine. This entire test with the extracted RNA from the patient saliva samples can be conducted in an ultra-low-cost portable device with the test results available in a customized Smartphone application for dissemination within 1 hour without requiring manual interpretation. All of this is possible at a cost of around `400 per test. The device is available for Rs. 2000 (will be lower for commercial production). The device has been proven to produce no false result with remarkable accuracy and sensitivity compatible to standard RT-PCR tests.
CPCB releases revised guidelines for handling and disposal of COVID-19-related waste
In order to deal with COVID-19 pandemic, State and Central Governments have initiated various steps, which include setting up of quarantine centres/ camps, isolation wards, sample collection centres and laboratories. Following specific guidelines for management of waste generated during diagnostics and treatment of COVID-19 suspected/confirmed patients are required to be followed by all the stakeholders including isolation wards, quarantine centres, sample collection centres, laboratories, ULBs and common biomedical waste treatment and disposal facilities, in addition to existing practices under BMW Management Rules, 2016. These guidelines are based on current knowledge on COVID-19 and existing practices in management of infectious waste generated in hospitals while treating viral and other contagious diseases, like HIV, H1N1, etc. This revision-4 of guidelines issued by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), on 17th July 2020, provide revised guidance on segregation of general solid waste and biomedical waste from quarantine centres/home-care/healthcare facilities treating COVID-19 patients and to recommend on disposal of PPEs.
IIT Delhi study reveals Tea and Haritaki may act as potential therapeutic options against COVID-19
The COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a worldwide pandemic and has caused huge damage to the lives and economy of more than two hundred countries. There have been worldwide efforts for developing cost-effective therapeutic options, which can curb the severity of the viral disease in humans, with minimal toxicity. In this context, medicinal plants may provide a way to treat the disease by targeting specific essential proteins of the virus. Working in this direction, a team of researchers led by Prof Ashok Kumar Patel from the Kusuma School of Biological Sciences (KSBS), IIT Delhi screened about 51 medicinal plants on 3CLProprotease (3-chymotrypsin-like protease) of the virus, which is necessary for processing the viral polyproteins and therefore has emerged as an interesting premise for the development of drugs targeting the virus. The targeting of this protein may therefore be able to halt the replication of the virus. The experimental findings showed that aqueous extracts from Tea (Black and Green Tea, Camellia sinensis) as well as Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), which is commonly known as Harad in Hindi, have potential anti-viral activity via in-vitro inhibition of the proteolytic activity of the main protease of the virus 3CL pro showing potential therapeutic candidates for the SARSCoV-2 infection, which should be further validated in in-vivo models.
IIT Delhi developing home-based COVID-19 testing kit, supported by Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo International Solutions Private Limited through their philanthropic partner, United Way of Bengaluru (UWBe), has joined hands with IIT Delhi in the fight against coronavirus. IIT Delhi and Wells Fargo recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the development of a peptidebased ELISA test for the detection of COVID-19 antibodies. ELISA, short for serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, determines whether a person possesses antibodies for COVID-19 in the blood. The test results can help the medical fraternity fight the disease in many ways; a significant way would be the identification of individuals with antibodies who can donate their blood as part of an experimental treatment of infected patients.
Union HRD Minister launches world’s most affordable COVID-19 diagnostic kit, Corosure, developed by IIT Delhi
Union Human Resource Development Minister, Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ e-launched the world’s most affordable RT-PCR-based COVID-19 diagnostic kit developed by IIT Delhi and approved by the ICMR and DCGI in New Delhi. COVID-19 Diagnostic Kit is a step towards Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s vision of a self-reliant India. The country requires cheap and reliable testing for the country which can help to control the pandemic. The Corosure Kit has been developed indigenously and is much cheaper than other kits. This affordable detection kit will help the country amid the ongoing crisis. This kit will now be available for use by the authorised testing labs with this launch and will significantly bring down the cost of COVID-19 RT-PCR testing.
IISER Tirupati reviews “Global efforts on vaccines for COVID-19” in the Topical Collection on COVID-19: Disease Biology & Intervention issue of the Journal of Biosciences
COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease that has turned into a pandemic. It spreads through droplet transmission of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It is an RNA virus displaying a spike protein as the major surface protein with significant sequence similarity to SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. The receptor binding domain of the spike protein interacts with the human angiotensin 16 converting enzyme 2 and is considered as the antigenic determinant for stimulating an immune response. While multiple candidate vaccines are currently under different stages of development, there are no known therapeutic interventions at the moment. A review paper by Raju Mukherjee, Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Tirupati, has been published that describes the key genetic features which are being considered for generating vaccine candidates by employing innovative technologies. It also highlights the global efforts being undertaken to deliver vaccines for COVID-19 through unprecedented international cooperation and future challenges post development.
IISc makes virucidal composite fabric for PPE
Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru, made a fabric for PPE named Virucidal composite fabric. Since there is no vaccine currently available for the COVID-19 pandemic, protection is the only prevention. Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as facemasks, gloves and surgical/lab coats are very important in the context of virus containment for healthcare workers during pandemics. Current antiviral masks available in the market are either expensive or are inefficient in reducing viral transmission. Due to high demand for PPE worldwide, the supply of quality PPE is limited. There is a need to rapidly manufacture affordable multi-layered masks with antiviral and antibacterial properties for protecting healthcare workers and other high-risk groups. A combination of three layers consisting of polyester and cotton fabrics is used to construct a 3-ply facemask to contain common viruses such as the influenza virus as well as SARSCoV-2. The three-layered mask consists of modified polyester, where a nanofibrous polymer membrane was deposited that renders the first layer highly hydrophobic. The first layer resists the entrance of any liquid drops containing the virus particles due to its hydrophobicity.
Contact Info: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
IISc develops analytical tool for direct numerical simulation of ‘cough/sneeze flows’ to understand transmission dynamics of COVID-19 infections
The transmission dynamics of highly-contagious respiratory diseases like COVID-19 (through coughing/sneezing) is an open problem in the epidemiological studies of such diseases. The primary cause of COVID-19 infections is believed to be droplet transmission from an infected person to a susceptible neighbour. WHO has recommended maintaining a distance of 1-2m from an infected person to minimize transmission to a neighbour. However, recent studies 17 suggest that this could be an underestimation and that the pathogen is likely to get transported over much longer distances, especially through sneezing. Thus, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 infection is the need of the hour. Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bengaluru has developed an analytical tool for direct numerical simulation of ‘cough/ sneeze flows’ to understand transmission dynamics of COVID-19 infections. The objective of the present work is to develop a direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for studying ‘cough/sneeze flows’ by a suitable combination of available DNS codes and to generate useful data and physical understanding on these flows.
IISc studies protective roles of flu infections and BCG vaccination in lowering COVID-19 mortality
Countries, such as the USA, Italy, France and Spain which have flu vaccination, but not BCG vaccination, showed maximum number of COVID-19 deaths. It appears that high numbers of flu infections are protective and can decrease the number of COVID-19 deaths. Importantly, countries with high flu cases and BCG vaccination, such as India, Egypt and South Africa, showed relatively lower COVID-19 deaths, reinforcing the protective roles of BCG vaccination. Notably, these general trends are statistically significant for COVID-19 deaths but not COVID-19 incidences. The study is being carried out at Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. The implications of results are discussed with respect to the roles of microbial infections in the respiratory tract, vaccinations and other factors in lowering COVID-19 deaths.
Contact Info: Dipankar Nandi; email@example.com
IIT Mandi develops 98% efficient face masks from waste plastic bottles at nearly one tenth the cost
Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Mandi developed high-efficiency facemasks out of waste plastic bottles. The PET bottles were successfully converted into a nanofibre membrane. This membrane can be layered with nylon on both sides to create the mask. Research scholars Ashish Kakoria and Sheshang Singh Chandel produced the mask under the guidance of Prof Sumit Sinha Ray. To extract the fibres, they shredded the waste plastic bottles and dissolved the pieces using a combination of solvents. Later, they extruded the nanofibres from the solution. The nanofibre membrane so developed is 250 times thinner than a human hair. By this, they can remove minute air particles with 98% efficiency. Prof Sinha and the team have been developing an efficient filter out of this nanofibre membrane since 2018. By March this year, they were almost close to finding their final product. They decided to focus their efforts on creating a facemask out of this developed membrane. Mr Kakoria and Mr Chandel continued to work during the lockdown while observing the necessary distancing norms and safety precautions in the lab. They are eager to get their work for public service. The team is looking for an industrial partner to manufacture the membrane and the mask on an industrial scale.
IIT Delhi incubated start-up Chakr Innovation launches ‘Chakr DeCoV’ to decontaminate N95 masks, a sustainable solution to fight COVID-19
Realising high reliability on N95 masks by the healthcare workers to fight against the coronavirus, IIT Delhi incubated cleantech start-up, Chakr Innovation has developed Chakr DeCoV, an ozone-based decontamination device to enable safe reuse of N95 masks. This decontamination device has been launched at a time when the country needs it most to strengthen the fight against COVID-19 pandemic as unsafe re-use of N95 masks may put lives 22 of the healthcare professionals at risk. Moreover, increase in the biomedical waste could cause additional infection and environmental risk. Determined to solve these problems, IAN Fund-backed, IIT Delhi-incubated start-up Chakr Innovation has come up with this unique, cost-effective technology that helps decontaminate N95 masks in only 90 minutes for safe reuse. Designed in the shape of a cabinet, Chakr DeCoV is built with an innovative decontamination mechanism, which utilises the high penetrability of Ozone gas for cleaning the pores of the N95 mask, ensuring complete decontamination of its intricate layers. Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent that destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat, resulting in damage to the viral RNA. Proper dosage and exposure of Ozone can result in inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and a 99.9999% reduction in bacterial load, after which an N95 mask can be reused for up to 10 times without any impact on the filtration efficiency (as tested by SITRA). Some of the commonly available systems with UV light-based decontamination are insufficient due to shadow effects and limited penetration through the pores of N95 masks. The viricidal effectiveness has also been tested by ICMR-NIV showing virus inactivation in desired material (permeable material including N95 masks). The system is designed with biosafety door and a catalytic reduction system to ensure utmost safety against any human exposure to ozone.
IIT Kharagpur develops COVID-19 Predictive Model for Decision-making
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) has developed a prediction system to help predict the future spread of COVID-19 and help decision-making in healthcare, industry, economy, and even academics. Prof Abhijit Das from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering has developed a logistic model which can be used to fit the available daily counts of infection cases. The data used for the predictions pertain to the entire country and for the eight most affected states in the country including Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh. However, the predictions for the future change quite rapidly with time. There are several potential factors for this such as different mobility patterns of people in different phases of lockdown, large-scale migration of labourers, change in diagnostic facilities, evolution of the coronavirus, and so on. These are well beyond the control of the logistic model or any other currently known prediction model for that matter. Although the implementation fails to generate stable and reliable predictions at the moment, the trend clearly reveals that the disease is going to stay in the country for many more months.
Contact Info: Prof Abhijit Das; firstname.lastname@example.org
A study at IIT Bhubaneswar suggests polyphenols may be beneficial in COVID-19 management
Resveratrol, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) found in several fruits, nuts and marketed nutraceuticals is one of the promiscuous polyphenolicphytoalexin known to promote good health, famously associated with “French Paradox”. The health benefits of resveratrol could be due to its antioxidant activity or its direct interaction with target proteins, resulting modulation of several cells signalling and inflammatory pathways. Indeed, published study indicates that resveratrol can effectively inhibit replication of influenza A virus, including the MERS coronavirus. Moreover, resveratrol can also upregulate the ACE2 receptor expression, providing protective effect against the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, the research group of Dr. S. Rana (Chemical Biology Laboratory), School of Basic Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar have recently shown (Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 2020, doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1738958) that resveratrol can strongly bind the proinflammatory protein h C5a of the complement system, which may be beneficial for controlling the inflammatory response triggered by the complement system, whenever challenged by infectious pathogens like SARS-CoV-2.
IIT Bhubaneswar working on rational design and development of neutralising peptide antibody for human complement fragment 5a (hc5a)
COVID-19 is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2, which triggers aggressive inflammation response in the host body. Virus entry into the host cell triggers unregulated complement activation, resulting the onset of ‘cytokine storm’, which plays a significant role in acute lung injury. It is worth mentioning that respiratory distress is the prime reason behind the coronavirus-related mortality. Controlling the proinflammatory response of hC5a may work as an alternative to prevent acute lung injury triggered by the exposure to SARS coronavirus. The research group of Dr S Rana (Chemical Biology Laboratory), School of Basic Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar is on a mission to design and develop peptide-based synthetic antibody for neutralizing the harmful proinflammatory function of hC5a. The computational biology aspect of the project will be conducted through HPC facility of IIT Delhi, which has recently approved the project through a special call for funding the COVID19-related research.
NIT Bhopal develops 3D printing arm-operated water tap to combat COVID-19
Water taps are set to be among the most contagious because of common washrooms having been permitted at crowded places. Therefore, to prevent direct contact, 3D printing has been utilised to fabricate arm- or elbow-operated water tap handles. Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT) Bhopal has taken the challenge to convert this concept into implementation without removing any existing components and permit to open normal water tap handles along with different water flow rates by arm or elbow to make the water taps safer during public use of common washrooms at the crowded places.
NIT Silchar developing movable COVID-19 disinfection chamber based on UV irradiation
The COVID-19 pandemic is the global threat which transcends territorial, political, religious, cultural, and definitely academic boundaries. Healthcare workers and biologists are at the frontline, working for mitigating the outbreak of the disease. Although the current challenge apparently seems far from the physical scientists and engineers who generally deal with inanimate objects, there is a scope for them to contribute to this global crisis. To address this challenge, National Institute of Technology (NIT) Silchar planned to set up a movable COVID-19 disinfection chamber operated by UV-C light (wavelength of 200-280 nm in the electromagnetic spectrum) that has been known for long to disinfect a variety of substances including food and water. The technology works by its germicidal effects, destroying microorganisms such as virus, bacteria by cleaving their DNA structures upon absorption of UV. The intensity of UV-C light and exposure time will be adjusted depending on the dimension of the chamber and the amount of substances to be cleaned. The designed chamber is made of plywood and comprising of wheels that make the system movable. The current approach is powerful and more convenient in terms of its low cost and non-invasive nature, in comparison to existing wet-chemical methods. This chamber can be used to disinfect a variety of daily used items including groceries, vegetables, wallet, currency, spectacles, luggage, books, pen, mobile phones, wristwatches, leather shoes, specifically the items which are susceptible to be damaged by detergent washing or other wet chemical methods. However, the present approach can only be applicable to disinfect non-living objects.
Contact Info: Dr S S Dhar; email@example.com
CESSI studies various aspects of lockdown in India
The Center of Excellence in Space Sciences India (CESSI) at IISER Kolkata has utilized their in-house modelling and data analytics capabilities to create resources intended for spreading scientific awareness about the pandemic among the general public and guiding future policies relating to the same. The resources available here are based on the CESSI-nCoV-SEIRD model which has been optimized for the Indian context at IISER Kolkata, data analysis of India-specific and some global data on the progress of the pandemic, and informational graphics and social media messages created by the Indian Scientists’ Response to CoViD19 (ISRC) group – to which IISER Kolkata scientists have contributed. The study highlights some issues that are very relevant to the coronavirus pandemic in the Indian context. It can pose some outstanding questions and provide model-based solutions that can guide public policy and catalyse socio-scientific awareness. These answers are backed by model predictions and data analysis of the observed trends in India. The study tries to find out the possible explanations of the following seven pertinent questions related to lockdown in India.
i)Is the Indian national lockdown necessary; what would have happened if there were no lockdown?
ii) How efficient is the Indian national lockdown?
iii) What is the simulated most-likely-scenario of novel coronavirus progression in India; what does this India-specific simulation tell us about the national containment efficiency and eventual numbers of affected individuals? 26
iv) Would it have been better if India imposed a complete national lockdown even earlier in February 2020?
v) What do empirical fits to the data tell us about the progression of the disease?
vi) Does empirical model fitting to the observed data on the novel coronavirus pandemic progression in India motivate the extension of the Indian national lockdown to 17 May 2020; how reliable are such empirical model fitting-based extrapolations?
vii) What is the best strategy for continuing a national lockdown or isolated regional lockdowns in various parts of India?
Contact Info: Prof. Dibyendu Nandi; firstname.lastname@example.org
Coswara: Speech and sound-based diagnostics developed by IISc to diagnose COVID-19
One of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 is persistent dry cough, with others including presence of respiratory sputum (phlegm) and shortness of breath. A real- time RTPCR test is the most commonly deployed test currently for COVID-19 with testing results available after several hours. As the pandemic is growing, the development of simplistic, costeffective and fast testing for the infection has become a crucial component in healthcare, policy making and economic revival of several countries. To address the challenge, Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has initiated a project, ‘Coswara.’ Coswara attempts to provide a simple tool for diagnostics of COVID-19 based on respiratory, cough and speech sounds. As the major symptoms of the disease include respiratory problems, the proposed project aims to detect and quantify the biomarkers of the disease in the acoustics of these sounds. The project requires participants to perform a recording of breathing sounds, cough sounds, sustained phonation of vowel sounds and a counting exercise. The entire response requires about 5 minutes of recording time. Along with these recordings, the tool also records the patient’s health status (without any personally identifiable information) as well as age, gender and location. The audio dataset collected will be released for researchers across the world to develop a potential diagnostic tool using signal processing and machine learning methods. The project is in the data collection stage and will go through an experimental validation before obtaining full approval as a potential diagnostic tool. Given the highly simplistic and cost-effective nature of the tool, it has been hypothesized that even a partial success for the tool would enable a massive deployment as a first line diagnostic tool for the pandemic. The project is not aimed to replace the chemical testing or the imaging methods but to merely supplement those with a cost-effective, fast and simple technique.
The webpage for data collection: https://record.coswara.iisc.ac.in/
Contact Info: Sriram Ganapathy; email@example.com
CovidWATCH: Rapid monitoring tool for regions with low smartphone penetration
CovidWatch is a rapid monitoring tool developed for areas with low smartphone penetration. It offers a basic screening test based on ICMR strategy and a symptom tracker to record daily symptoms, via multi-language Whatsapp chatbot. Specifically built for people with little to no technological acumen, it also allows a single volunteer to take this test on behalf of multiple nearby people for convenience. The data is shared with the authorities in the form of a dashboard, where it is filtered based on location, symptoms, age, etc. for subsequent follow-ups. This tool has been deployed in a ward under Pune Municipality and has already helped authorities by surveying close to 3,000 people in approximately 2 weeks.
Contact info: Chiranjib Bhattacharyya; firstname.lastname@example.org
Rapid point-of-care test for mass surveillance at public transit systems
A Rapid Screening Test for Point-of-care Diagnostics has been developed by a team at IISc, Bengaluru. It has an isothermal amplification-based lateral flow detection approach that can be used in low resource settings and produces results in only 30-90 minutes. The main idea is to manage and control community infection and spread via mass screening tests that can be used at entry and exit points at airports, railways, and other mass transit systems. The detection system does NOT require PCR or RT-PCR devices or any specialized medical staff or training.
This has three steps:
1. One-step RNA extraction kit to extract RNA samples and keep it intact;
2. LAMP Assay for Isothermal Amplification that requires a heatblock; and
3. Lateral Flow Assay for Visual Confirmation which works similar to a pregnancy test.
Contact Info: Fathima Benazir; email@example.com
IISc developing Sero-CoV-ID to detect SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies
Serology assays that detect infection-specific antibodies in the serum of an individual are an effective surveillance method to understand the level of spread of infection in a population. SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission identified at 40-80% of asymptomatic cases makes it difficult to estimate the progression of pandemic without serology tests. Seroprevalence testing by protein/peptide-based ELISA is a cheap method to understand disease spread. A team at IISc, Bengaluru has developed two distinct variants of indirect ELISA tests to detect SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The assay employs SARS-CoV-2-specific antigen or peptides for detection. The COVID-19-specific antibody in the blood of an individual binds with the antigens immobilized on the microwell and can be detected using antibody against human IgG/IgM antibodies. Their initial test results with COVID-19 antigen shows 100% specificity and 85% sensitivity (at 12-15 days after onset of symptoms). The peptide-based ELISA assay also has 100% specificity albeit with poorer sensitivity (50%) but is half the cost of protein assays. The team is working on improving both of these tests further and validating them with additional samples. This project is a collaboration between IISc, Bangalore Medical College (BMC), St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), and TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences (TCIS). Initial support for this work has been provided by Capgemini through the Corporate Social Responsibility scheme and facilitated by the Office of Development and Alumni Affairs (ODAA) at IISc and the Principal Scientific Adviser’s office, GoI.
Contact Info: Rahul Roy; firstname.lastname@example.org
IISc designs S3 medical oxygen generator to combat COVID-19
The Gasification group at IISc, which specializes in low pressure multi-species gas separation, has developed an oxygen generation system for small-scale medical requirements. The process uses low power and meets the specifications as per the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoH&FW). The process draws ambient air through a compressor along with an air conditioning system to remove any contaminants in the air before the separation. The oxygen separation takes place within a twin-bed Vacuum Swing Adsorption system integrated with a small storage volume as a discharge vessel and various safety systems. The equipment-build material and the oxygen produced fulfil the gas quality requirements as prescribed by Indian Pharmacopeia and can be used in ICU/CCU/OT and other clinical wards. The choice of materials for the equipment meets the prescribed standards.
NIT Durgapur developed indigenous automated AMBU bag system
NIT Durgapur has developed an indigenous automated AMBU bag system that can serve as a quick and temporary substitute for ventilators in emergencies. AMBU stands for Artificial Manual Breathing Unit. The present system is automated and can be tuned for oxygen requirements. The system has been christened “Pranesh”.
IIT Bombay studies likelihood of survival of coronavirus in a respiratory droplet deposited on a solid surface
Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay find how temperature, humidity and properties of different surfaces influence the evaporation rates of respiratory droplets infected with COVID-19. In a new study, they have explored how long it takes for such respiratory droplets to evaporate from different surfaces. They found that humidity, temperature and the properties of the surface are vital in determining when the droplets dry up. The study was published in the peer-reviewed journal Physics of Fluids.
Contact Info: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
CPCB releases revised guidelines for handling, treatment and disposal of waste generated during treatment, diagnostics and quarantine of COVID-19 patients
In suppression of earlier guidelines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has released its revised guidelines for handling, treatment and disposal of waste generated during treatment, diagnostics and quarantine of COVID-19 patients. These guidelines are based on current knowledge on COVID-19 and existing practices in management of infectious waste generated 26 in hospitals while treating viral and other contagious diseases like HIV, H1N1, etc. These guidelines will be updated if need arises. This revision-3 of guidelines issued to incorporate guidance on segregation of general solid waste and biomedical waste. Further, this revision also addresses safety of waste handlers / sanitation workers associated with healthcare facilities, urban local bodies (ULBs) and Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTFs) in handling of biomedical waste and solid waste generated from quarantine centers/home-care/ healthcare facilities treating COVID-19 patients.
IIT Tirupati develops misinformation and fake news detection tool for COVID-19
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Tirupati researchers have developed a platform to detect fake/misinformation from text message or website based on machine learning classifier and natural language processing. This platform has been developed by the Research in Intelligent Software and Human Analytics (RISHA) Lab under the guidance of Dr. Sridhar Chimalakonda and Mr. Noble Saji Mathews. The initiative is aimed at putting an end to the infodemic related to COVID-19 pandemic.
Odisha uses IIT Tirupati mobility analysis to track COVID-19 infection
In Odisha, the State Government deployed security checks and enforced restrictions to contain spread of infection by analysing the movement patterns of people in COVID-19 hot spots. Behind the analysis was a team of researchers from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Tirupati. Using Artificial Intelligence (AI), the IITTirupati team led by Dr Kalidas Yeturu of Computer Science Department, analysed Facebook datasets, available for researchers and non-profits as a part of their Data for Good Program. These anonymised and aggregated datasets, better known as Disease Prevention Maps, have helped the team to come up with near real-time mobility of people pointing at non-adherence of lockdown restrictions in particular areas of Odisha. The analysis eventually helped State administration shape its strategic action. The mobility analysis showed spurt in movement of people in various pockets of Jajpur, Sundargarh, Balasore, Bhadrak and Bhubaneswar, despite lockdown restrictions.
NIPER Mohali develops Immunity Booster Herbal Tea
Low or weak immunity makes a person more vulnerable to viral/ bacterial infections like the COVID-19. As no new effective drugs and vaccine are available yet to treat the disease, it is important to strengthen our immunity. Considering the challenge, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) at SAS Nagar (Mohali) has developed Immunity Booster Herbal Tea. The formula has been designed to achieve maximum immune boosting effect. The five potential immune booster herbs that are used in the form of herbal tea bags are 1. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) 2. Giloe (Tinospora cordifolia) 3. Mulethi (Glycyrrhiza glabra) 4. Tulsi (Ocimum species) and 5. Green Tea (Camellia sinensis). It is recommended to take the tea three times a day. Children and aged persons can also consume the tea without any problem. It feels soothing on throat and can help the body to fight seasonal flu also. It is an in-house preparation with all the herbs collected/procured from within the NIPER medicinal plant garden on the campus.
IIT Hyderabad develops low cost COVID-19 detection kit
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Hyderabad has developed a low cost COVID-19 detection kit in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai that can deliver results within 20 minutes. The diagnostic test method is not based on the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) - the method currently being used for COVID-19 testing. The test kit has been developed at a cost of Rs. 550 and it can be reduced to up to Rs. 350 when taken to mass production.
IIT-Palakkad develops ultrasound for COVID-19 screening
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Palakkad has developed ultrasound for COVID-19 screening. This is an automated lung ultrasound (LUS) for COVID-19 screening and monitoring through cloud-based image analysis and scoring system using image processing and machine learning techniques. The technology and the App, the first of its kind in India, are now available for clinicians to perform automated analysis by just uploading the ultrasound video.
Expert database for research on COVID-19 pandemic from the Science Academies of India
The three Science Academies of India - National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI), Indian Academy of Sciences (IASc) and Indian National Science Academy (INSA) - have jointly drawn on a list of experts/scientists/fellows of the academies, who have volunteered to participate and assist with planning/ decision/research addressing the challenges posed by COVID-19. They will be willing to participate, review and assist with any of the programmes in the domains of their expertise.
The lists of scientists are from the following areas of expertise:
Data Analytics and Modelling
Therapeutics and Repurposing of Medicines
Design and manufacture of Protective Gear
Rapid manufacture of test kits
Rapid manufacture of instruments including ventilators
Rapid validation of drug
Contact info: AcademiesExperts@gmail.com
IISc successfully completes prototyping of PRAANA ventilator
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) successfully completes the prototyping of an indigenously developed ICUgrade ventilator. Built using a custom designed pneumatic system controlled by a microprocessor, it uses proprietary 30 algorithms and techniques to blend air and oxygen in the desired ratio. It also has fine-grained control of patient-side respiratory parameters such as respiration rate, inspiration to expiration ratio, FiO2 , and PEEP. It supports both invasive and non-invasive ventilation. The ventilator uses only components made in India or easily available in the domestic supply chains. The team took about 35 days to go from the drawing board to a proof-of-concept system and then a working prototype in another two weeks.
NIT Jalandhar develops herbal hand sanitiser to fight COVID-19 outbreak
In order to promote hand hygiene and minimise the transmission risk of the COVID-19 virus among the individuals, National Institute of Technology (NIT) Jalandhar in collaboration with Bharat Herbals, Jalandhar developed a lowcost herbal hand sanitizer and has more than 70% alcohol. The sanitizer is found to be effective in destroying Coronaviruses.
IISc building indigenous ventilator prototype for COVID-19 patients
A ventilator can be a life-saver for patients whose lungs are damaged by the COVID-19 infection. But India, like all other countries grappling with this pandemic, is likely to face a large shortage of ventilators. Manufacturers are unable to source key components such as sensors and flow controllers from abroad due to the current disruptions in global supply chains. To address this shortage, Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is currently building a prototype of an electro-mechanical ventilator from scratch, using only components found or made in India, based on guidelines issued by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. It is expected to be ready within the next couple of weeks.
Contact Info: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
NIT Jalandhar develops a novel technology to curb the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2
As COVID-19 continues to ravage the global populations, the world is singularly focused on finding ways to battle the novel coronavirus. The premier institutes of the country are trying hard to develop novel disinfection and decontamination technologies to fight the spread of COVID-19. Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (NIT), Jalandhar developed a novel technology for chemical-free sanitisation of the indoor air to combat the spread of COVID-19 through airborne transmission in enclosed spaces such as offices, lifts, shops, restaurants, classrooms, hospitals, airplane cabins, healthcare facilities, ICUs, isolation and quarantine centres, etc. The technology has been transferred to M/s Hi-Safe Electronics Corporation for commercial production of chemical-free indoor air sanitizer.The technology was invented by Dr Jatinder Kumar Ratan, Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, and patent for the same has already been filed along with Dr KS Nagla of Instrumentation department.
Contact Info: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
KAWACH mask, a product of IIT Delhi start-up ETEX boosting employment and making people Atmanirbhar
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) start-up ETEX has launched affordable and effective facemask, KAWACH, to provide protection against COVID-19. KAWACH mask is a multilayer textile innovation for optimum protection at an affordable rate (Rs. 45 only), 98% Filtration protection against 3 µm (micron) and 90% against 0.3 µm (micron). Ultra-soft fibrous lightweight material (<15 g) and advanced knitting technology have been used to give extra comfort to the wearer. Its 3D-fit design, as par with N95, allows maximum face covering for protection. The mask has also been tested and approved by the NABL-accredited lab using international standards (ASTM F2299, ASTM F2101, IS 16289:2014, ASTM F1862/F1862M-13, 16 CFR Part-1610). KAWACH is primarily made from biodegradable materials to save the environment. Within six weeks of launching the highly protective and affordable “Make in India” mask ‘KAWACH’, ETEX has scaled up production to ensure that the mask reaches the masses to protect them against COVID-19. So far, over a million masks have been distributed across the country.
IIT Gandhinagar develops an interactive COVID-19 dashboard to aid optimised testing and post-lockdown operations
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar (IITGN) has developed an interactive ‘COVID-19 Dashboard’ that provides different epidemiological scenario-specific information at a city-scale. It is aimed at helping various stakeholders in optimised testing efforts and post-lockdown operations to contain community infection. The dashboard called ‘MIR AHD COVID-19 Dashboard’ is a city-scale project which integrates the complex social and transportation patterns with state-of-theart epidemic spread models, in addition to testing and quarantining rates, and contact tracing rates. As cities prepare to open after current lockdowns, the recovery strategies have to account for social distancing, congestion-free transits and unusual traffic patterns these cities would witness with red and containment zones declared as a notravel zone. This dashboard, first of its kind for Indian cities, assesses the local risk factors to give a city-scale projection of COVID-19 incidence while accounting for various social distancing scenarios. In addition to the epidemiological data, it also disseminates information about potential congestion zones and rerouting under different containment scenarios to the stakeholders.
IIT Kharagpur develops Sammarjak, the mechanised mobile broom for cleaning large public spaces
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) has developed a vehicle-based mechanised broom Sammarjak MB 4.2 to clean the 2100 acre campus area. The technology has been successfully tested across the campus during the present lockdown situation and has planned to deploy the vehicle to be used on campus to adhere to social distancing norms. This technology consists of two mechanized brooms in the front and one side, running on battery and solar power. It has the flexibility to move the dirt on roads in angular directions or in up and down direction to fit various road conditions.
Central Pollution Control Board releases user manual for Android Mobile & Web Application for COVID-19 BMW Tracking App
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) released user Manual for Android Mobile and Web Application for COVID-19 BMW Tracking App. It is a software application for tracking of generation, collection and disposal of COVID-19 Bio-medical waste, generated at various Health Care facilities &Hospitals (HCF), Quarantine Centres, Isolation wards, Testing Labs, COVID-19 Sample Collection Centres and Urban Local Bodies involved in performing the duties of waste collection from Home Quarantine centres/homecare units. This application will enable information exchange between various stakeholders involved. The User manual explains various sections of COVID-19 BMW tracking application for its users that is Waste Generator, Waste Handlers, Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTF), State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees, and others. This manual also provides information on downloading and operating the application. The Tracking App is initially developed for android mobiles, however, IoS version is under progress. The Manual explains the process of collection of waste together with responsibilities of its stake holders.
Central Pollution Control Board releases pictorial guide on biomedical waste management including COVID-19 waste
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has released a pictorial guide on Biomedical Waste Management (BMWM) Rules, 2016 (amended in 2018 & 2019), which is a product of joint research by the Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC), Centre for Environmental Health (CEH), Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) and Health Care Without Harm (HCWH). The guide is a compilation of important strategies that are keys to appropriate management of biomedical waste in India. The pictorial guide provides a quick, user-friendly view of the important elements of biomedical waste handling, treatment, and disposal through its illustrative components. These are based on the specifications provided in the BMWM Rules, 2016 and its subsequent amendments. Importantly, the guide also includes the provisions for COVID-19 waste management as prescribed in the Central Pollution Control Board Guidelines 2020.
COVID-19 research projects by IIT Delhi receive financial support from Microsoft India
Research to tackle the COVID-19 situation continues at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, with focus on the early detection of the disease. Aiding this endeavour, Microsoft India has come forth to support two such projects of the Institute. One of them pertains to ICMR-approved probefree real-time PCR-based COVID-19 detection assay developed at the Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi. This probe-free technology will be more affordable and easily scalable. The other project is a collaboration between IIT Delhi and National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, and it aims to develop an ELISA-based diagnostic serological assay against COVID-19.
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology develops Sahayak Robot for healthcare corona warriors
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur, has developed a robot named ‘Sahayak’ to help in fighting the coronavirus pandemic. Considering frontline workers like doctors and nurses in the hospital are at the highest risk of getting infected, the team of researchers at ‘IvLabs,’ the robotics lab of VNIT, converted a hospital trolley into an automated robot that can be wirelessly controlled. Such a robot can be used by the hospital staff to deliver food packets and medicines to the COVID-19 patients and maintain a safe distance. The robot is also equipped with a display screen, camera, and a speaker which can be used by the doctors for video communication with the patients.
IIT Ropar provides multiple technological interventions to fight against COVID-19 outbreak
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Ropar develops several technological interventions for combating the COVID-19 pandemic. These include UV-C sterilization box; 3-way PPE sterilization unit; doffing station; UV-C-specific sensor development; aerial autonomous system for Touchme-not environment in COVID-19 wards; intelligent InfraRed Vision System for screening of COVID suspects; low-cost Ambu-bag attachment for Rapid Mass Emergency Deployment (AARMED) as a ventilator; a negative pressure aerosol containment box for reducing infection among healthcare workers in ICU; noble synthetic materials for anti-microbial coatings on PPE kits, and spray for disinfecting tunnels and for fogging purpose.
Contact Info: email@example.com
Noble synthetic material for anti-microbial coatings developed by IIT Ropar
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Ropar is actively contributing to address the issues related to COVID-19. In this direction, it has developed noble synthetic materials for anti-microbial coatings on PPE kits and spray for disinfecting tunnels and for fogging purpose. These materials are nonvolatile in nature with no foul smell, possess high anti-microbial activities, and show high shelf life on different metallic or non-metallic surfaces. The team has developed two types of coatings, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, and hence one can use them based upon the area of application. The hydrophilic materials are primarily meant for fogging and spray on walls etc., while hydrophobic materials are specifically designed for coatings on PPE.
Contact Info: firstname.lastname@example.org
IIT Goa works to find a cure for COVID-19
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Goa has initiated a process to find a potential drug against COVID-19. The team is carrying out the work in collaboration with researchers at the Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA. The team plans to synthesise the newly-designed compounds and then check for their bioactivity against the virus to identify the starting point for potential drug discovery efforts.
IISER Tirupati reviews the Global efforts on vaccines for COVID-19
Indian Institute of Science and Education & Research (IISER) Tirupati reviews the global efforts on development of candidate vaccine to combat COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The review describes the key genetic features that are being considered for generating vaccine candidates by employing innovative technologies. It also highlights the global efforts being undertaken to deliver vaccines for COVID-19 through unprecedented international cooperation and future challenges, post development. While multiple candidate vaccines are currently under different stages of development, there are no known therapeutic interventions at the moment.
NIPER Guwahati develops innovative 3D Products
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Guwahati has developed two 3D-printed products that can be very useful to help in fight against the COVID-19 infection, as personal protective equipment. NIPER Guwahati, a premier institute of national importance, has developed a 3D-printed hands-free object and a 3D-printed antimicrobial face-shield. The hands-free object can be used to open or close doors, windows, drawers (both vertical and horizontal), and refrigerator handle, or press elevator buttons, and laptop/desktop keyboards, including turning the switch buttons on/off.
IIT Delhi develops affordable PPE coverall that reaches adequate levels of breathability
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi develops affordable PPE coverall having adequate levels of breathability. Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering at IIT Delhi is actively involved in the development of high-functional and specialty textile materials and has successfully commercialised products for the national interest. The Department has now widened its spectrum in developing the technology for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Coverall (Integrated Body Suit and Shoe Cover) for the protection of the doctors, nurses, paramedical staff and others, who are involved in the treatment of coronavirusinfected patients. This advanced version of PPE coverall is set to emerge as an improvised product in the national and international markets, bestowing several special functional features, to meet requirements for added comfort.
The salient features of the advanced level PPE Coverall include the following:
Special coating and treatment formulation, applied over very light and compact polyester woven fabric, which has permitted to maintain the weight of PPE coverall to 300 gm against commercially available 400- 500 gm.
Complete protection against penetration of coronavirus (meets the requirements of MoHFW; ISO 16603). COVID-19 PPE Coverall (Body Suit and Shoe Cover)
Excellent anti-bacterial property (more than 99.5% reduction; AATCC 100: 2012) and such feature is not available in most of the commercially available PPE coveralls.
Special grade PU coating, providing very smooth surface feel and adequate clothing breathability, which provide comfort to the user [BS: 7209 (1990)]. This feature is not available with other commercially available PPE coveralls.
The outer face of the coverall displays excellent water repellence (rating = 90) and oil repellence (10/10); hence the coronavirus falling over the fabric rolls off with ease.
It can be reused three times; hence, the effective cost is very low, compared to others.
Available in four sizes (both Body Suit - S, M, L & XL and Shoe Cover - 1, 2, 3 & 4) to fit the complete range of users, as opposed to Universal/Limited size in commercially available coverall. The researchers have collaborated with G. D. International (an ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified company, with more than 38 years of experience in technical textiles) to produce 1,20,000 coveralls/month.
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Technologies to tackle covid-19 pandemic from IIT Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) is offering an integrated set of end-to-end industrially scalable and commercially viable solutions to deal with various challenges at every stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Faculties from various departments and the incubated companies of its Technology Business Incubator -- Startup Innovation Incubation Centre (SIIC) have been assiduously working to develop rapidly scalable range of products and services for COVID-19 prevention, protection and management. IIT Kanpur is also part of group called Caring Indians that has gathered innovation enthusiasts from across the country where IITK is providing both technical and business mentoring through its alumni and their connects in whatever way possible. The proposed technologies can be deployed nationally and across the ASEAN region wherever needed through technology transfer.
Contact tracing and fake news verification App: The users of social media apps can easily check whether the news received is a fake one (in a comparatively simpler manner). This can be used with non-smart phone also and thus deployable in areas of limited telecom connectivity Alternative to current Surgical and N-95 masks: The team of researchers tested various available filter media and developed a low-cost protective respirator which is equivalent or better than N95. It will have a filter testing rig equipped with an aerosol laser spectrometer and a non-woven polypropylene based 3-4 layer material. After identifying the appropriate material, the mask will be made manually, considering the accessibility of ultrasonic welding machine and automatic manufacturing machines.
Personal Protective Equipment Kits for medical staff and essential workers: IITK has designed PPE Kits based on thin cylindrical rolls and pipes of polyethylene, which is nonporous and commonly used in the industry for packaging and making plastic bags. Polythene is airtight and will provide required protection. The technology is made open source for anybody to make it. It is easy to scale, cost effective and relevant particularly as imported kits are difficult to get.
whole body protection wearable by Aarna biomedical products: A holistic full-body disposable wearable kit (named as SURAKSHA) has been developed for self-protection of personnel in vulnerable environments. It comprises of a full-face shield, face mask, a coverall with fused head coverage, shoe covers and hand covers. The kit is tenable and implementable after immediate funding support and approvals for logistics and manufacturing.
Disinfection chamber - Two-stage Innovative Process for Human Disinfection for Controlled Access: This proposal focuses on innovatively combining two common disinfection approaches (Soap-based solutions and covering others surfaces) followed across the world to achieve a new and cost-effective disinfection process that is safe for human beings.
IIT Bhubaneswar develops a Patient Responsive Active Assist coNtrol (PRAAN) Ventilator
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar (IITBBS) has developed a Patient Responsive Active Assist coNtrol (PRAAN) ventilator for COVID-19 emergencies. It can be operated in the standard volume control mode by setting breaths-per-minute, inhale and exhale time ratios, and tidal volume. The LCD displays various control clinical parameters and features fault alarms. Some of the critical structural members have been 3D printed. The highlight of this PRAAN ventilator is its active assist control mode. In this mode of operation the ventilator senses that the patient is trying to inhale and will adapt to the patient’s breathing frequency, reducing the load on the lungs. This feature has been realised in the ventilator without significant increase in cost
Ashwagandha emerges as Mother Nature’s COVID-Warrior
A collaborative research study by DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB) at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan has recently discovered that Ashwagandha may hold an efficient anti-COVID-19 drug. This study has given a boost to the recent initiative of the Government of India in forming an Interdisciplinary Task Force [joint initiative of Ministry of AYUSH, MoHFW, MoST through CSIR, and ICMR] to launch its clinical research studies related to SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 disease. The current research provides direct hint to its anti-viral activities when combined in appropriate proportions with New Zealand’s Propolis. The team has reported that natural compounds from Ashwagandha and Propolis have the potential to be effective anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. The team described that they have also searched for the capability to these bioactives to modulate the protein on the surface of human cells, to which the SARS-CoV-2 binds and allows its entry into our cell - the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and selected Withanone. The team said that their findings may not only connect to save time and cost required for screening for anti-COVID-19 drugs but may also offer some preventive and therapeutic value for the management of fatal COVID-19 pandemic, and hence warrant prioritized validation in the laboratory and clinical tests. The study has given an opportunity to merge the traditional knowledge with the modern technologies. Notably, DAILAB teams at IIT Delhi and AIST Japan have been working on natural compounds from Ashwagandha and Propolis for last several years.
IIT Delhi start-up launches Reusable Antimicrobial Mask
An IIT Delhi start-up “Nanosafe Solutions” has launched an antimicrobial and washable facemask “NSafe”,which is reusable up to 50 launderings,thus greatly cutting down the cost of use. The team consists of Dr. Anasuya Roy, an IIT Delhi Alumnus, Founder and CEO of Nanosafe Solutions Pvt. Ltd. and Prof. Mangala Joshi, Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, IIT Delhi and also Founder and Director of the start-up. NSafe mask is a highly engineered triple-layered product consisting of inner hydrophilic layer for comfort, middle layer having antimicrobial activity and outer-most layer having water and oil repellent behaviour. The mask has 99.2% bacterial filtration efficiency (at 3 microns) and complies with ASTM standards of breathability and splash resistance. It is extremely comfortable and breathable. Elastic band in the chin region and wire in the nose region provides adequate fit of the mask to the wearer. Prof. Mangala Joshi said, “We believe this is the first fabric-based antimicrobial facemask launched in India, which is washable and reusable along with very high Bacterial Filtration Efficiency as tested according to ASTM standards. It is engineered to have very good breathability and comfort.” Dr. Anasuya Roy added, “The mask has been designed to maximize durability and dimensional stability, so that the mask can be reused 50 times. Effective reusability is an important factor as singleuse masks will cause huge disposal issues.” 34 NSafe mask enhances protection of the wearer through three different mechanisms:mechanical filtration, antimicrobial decontamination and repulsion of aerosol droplets. The masks are dry-cleaned before packaging and packaged under hygienic conditions. After each usage (approximately 8-9 hours), the mask has to be hand washed in cold water with mild detergent and dried thoroughly in the sunlight. After 50 usages, the mask has to be disposed in a sealed polyethylene bag and put in the recyclable waste bin. NSafe mask is a premium product that is likely to be available at MRP of Rs. 299 (Pack of 2) and Rs. 589 (Pack of 4).The start-up has started manufacturing the masks.
IT Jodhpur studies on neurological perspective of COVID-19 outbreak crates widespread interest
Prof. Surajit Ghosh’s study on neurological perspective of COVID-19 outbreak has created widespread impact and has featured nationally. In this paper, Ghosh et al. have tried to understand the neurological manifestations of the COVID-19 virus and the probable therapeutic strategies that could be adopted to combat it. The paper also touches upon the endemic response of the people to COVID-19 infection.
IIT Jammu develops face protection shield
Face protection shields has been developed by IIT Jammu, which is very important personal protection equipment (PPE) for any professional during the pandemic COVID-19. These shields are specially designed for Doctors, Police, Armed Forces of Jammu & Kashmir and IIT Jammu students, staff, and faculties. IIT Jammu is producing these shields in large quantities (10000 initially) to distribute among various defense professionals and doctors.
IIT Ropar created ‘Containment Box’ to prevent corona infection
IIT Ropar and the doctors of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, have jointly developed a ‘Containment Box’, which will provide an additional layer of protection to health workers and doctors, so that they can be protected from infection of corona.
Social and R&D Initiatives by IIT Hyderabad to support fight against COVID-19
Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad developed many social and R&D products to combat COVID-19 pandemic like lab-made sanitizer, UV-C-based LED sanitizer, Face Shield & Protective Gears, Ventilators and other hardware, drugs, vaccines & treatment, sensors/detectors, App for data collection, remote monitoring, visual surveillance, transportation, and support working mothers and villages adopted under Unnat Bharat Abhiyan.
IISC develops virucidal composite fabric for PPE
Researchers at Indian Institute of Science (IISC) have developed a cost-effective, antiviral and antibacterial 3-ply, textile-based facemask using an industrially scalable technology to prepare fibres of nanometer (nm) diameter with inter-fibre pores of nm size. Current antiviral masks available in the market are either expensive or are inefficient in reducing viral transmission. Due to high demand for PPE worldwide, the supply of quality PPE is limited. The mask prepared by the team has a combination of three layers consisting of polyester and cotton fabrics to contain common viruses such as the influenza virus, as well as SARS-CoV-2. The three-layered mask consists of modified polyester, where a nanofibrous polymer membrane was deposited that renders the first layer highly hydrophobic. Commercially available masks are based on the principle of physically blocking the entry of the bacteria and virus. But during handling, removal and disposal, live bacteria and viruses can get transferred to healthcare workers. For maximum protection to healthcare workers handling COVID-19 patients, the fabrics used in masks and other PPE should be virucidal.
Single-Piece Full Body PPE Cover (Marshall) developed at NIT Jalandhar to fight COVID-19 outbreak
Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Jalandhar (NITJ) has designed and developed a single-piece full body PPE cover (marshall). The designed PPE covers from head to toes with proper ventilation without direct exposure to viral particles suspended in the environment (air, water, soil). The mask and screen are pre-installed as the part of the cover. The PPE is chained from back side while the front side which is exposed mainly to infected person is completely covered.
A new low-cost ventilator prototype developed at IISER Pune
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Pune faculty members Dr. Umakant Rapol and Dr. Sunil Nair have developed a low-cost ventilator put together with readily available and easily sourceable parts. The researchers are now looking to get in touch with manufacturers to produce this ventilator model.
Helyxon Fever Watch
Helyxon, a start-up in the IIT Madras Research Park, has developed an app-based temperature device, called the 98.6 Fever Watch that can monitor one’s health at home. This is a Healthcare IOT system and can be automatized at all hospital beds and at home. The device keeps track of the spikes and aberrations and whenever an anomaly is observed a system-generated call alert is made to the user while an automatic escalation to the local provider is done. The devices are equipped with geo-fencing tracking alerts to keep track of the patient’s movements and ensure isolated patients do not violate the provisions of quarantine. The 98.6 Fever Watch is particularly useful for sick children in whom continuous monitoring of temperature is a vital parameter in disease management.
IIT Delhi standardizes Probe-free COVID-19 detection assay
Researchers at Kusuma School of Biological Sciences (KSBS) at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi, have developed a detection assay for COVID-19 which has now been approved by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The assay has been validated at ICMR with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. This makes IITD the first academic institute to obtain ICMR approval for a real-time PCRbased diagnostic assay.
NIT Srinagar develops RUHDAAR, a Frugal Ventilator for pandemics
Amid COVID-19 outbreak and presuming the shortage of ventilators, faculty members at the National Institute of Technology (NIT), Srinagar in collaboration with the faculty members, innovators and alumni at Design Innovation Centre (DIC), IUST developed a frugal ventilator prototype. The prototype named ‘RUHDAAR’ is essentially a low-cost mechanical ventilator which is targeted only for emergency situations or pandemics like COVID-19. The prototype was designed and fabricated at Design Innovation Centre, IUST.
IIT Jodhpur develops Telemedicine Portal
Visiting a health centre or hospital for any kind of ailments has become a new challenge due to the high risk of possible COVID-19 infection. Doctors are also naturally cautious and sensitive about examination of patients. However, such situations provide opportunity for technology to usher in new solutions. At Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur (IITJ), Kunal Tawatia, an undergraduate student of the CSE Department, under the mentorship of Dr Sumit Kalra has developed a tele-consultation platform. Utilising this platform, one can consult doctors for ailments.
IIT Bhubaneshwar develops UVC Disinfection Cabinet
Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bhubaneswar have developed technologies to tackle COVID-19 pandemic, such as UVC Disinfection Cabinet. The cabinet aims to disinfect the PPE of medical staff, electronic gadgets, garments, packets and other objects and to inactivate coronavirus from the surface of the test samples.
IIT Bhubaneshwar develops portable ventilator to fight COVID-19 emergency
The School of Mechanical Sciences at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bhubaneswar has developed a portable ventilator to fight against COVID-19 and in emergency pandemic situation. The device has been conceived and manufactured in house by Dr M M Mahapatra and team (Dr J G Thakare, Mr Arabinda Meher, Mr Bivudatta Mohanty, Mr Umesh Melkani).
PCR Kits approved for testing of Covid-19 as on 17.04.2020
The document released by Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) contains a list of types of kits approved for testing of COVID-19 disease, along with the name of firms and their locations.
IIT Delhi researchers develop web-based COVID-19 dashboard ‘PRACRITI’- PRediction and Assessment of CoRona Infections and Transmission in India
IIT Delhi researchers have developed a web-based dashboard for predicting the spread of COVID-19 in India. The mobile-friendly dashboard, named as PRACRITI (PRediction and Assessment of CoRona Infections and Transmission in India), gives detailed statewise and district-wise predictions of COVID-19 cases in India. The projections are provided for a three-week period, which is updated weekly. The researchers believe that such a platform will be highly useful for healthcare bodies and local and central authorities to plan for different future scenarios and resource allocation efficiently.
Pandemic Healthcare Technologies Underway at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur(IITKGP)
IIT Kharagpur has set up research funding for R&D work related to COVID-19. The Institute submitted a list of projects to the IIT Council last week of which eight projects have been selected. The researchers would be working on several technologies including design and development of a rapid diagnostic kit; real-time PCR machine, bodysuit for COVID-19 patients; personal protective equipment for healthcare workers and portable shredder integrated with steriliser; Hazmat Suit with forced purified and cooled air circulation for medical professionals; bootstrapping AMBU-bag as an automated ventilator; telemedicine for fighting the viral pandemic; and large-scale production of recombinant proteins for vaccine and testing. An amount of Rs. 50 lakh has been allotted for Phase I of 8 projects towards development of prototypes. For most of these projects, the prototypes are expected to be ready within 3-4 weeks, while a couple of them would take about six months to deliver the results.
IIT Roorkee start-up develops herbal hand sanitizer to tackle COVID-19
In an endeavour to minimise the transmission risk of COVID-19 and promote basic hygiene, two students of IIT Roorkee have led the development of preparing more than 150 litres (1500 bottles) of herbal hand sanitizer. The hand sanitizer will be distributed free of cost by Heal-agnostics Innovations Pvt. Ltd., a startup incubated at TIDES, IIT Roorkee under the aegis of Dr Indranil Lahiri and Dr Debrupa Lahiri, with support from the administration. An initiative of Siddharth Sharma, a research scholar of Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee (also a co-founder of Heal-agnostic Innovations) and Vaibhav Jain, research scholar of the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, it is made of 80% isopropanol/ ethanol and comprises of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory herbal ingredients; it also works as an excellent moisturiser.
Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur develops UV-based system for disinfecting medical accessories
Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur has developed an Advanced Photocatalytic Oxidation Sterilisation System based on UV light and metal oxide nanoparticles in catalyst panels. This can be used for sterilisation of medical accessories being used by doctors and COVID-19 patient handlers. The System has two indigenous assemblies of UV light sterilisation systems housed within a portable biological safety environment to kill the bacteria and viruses. Metal oxide nanoparticles in catalyst plates are synergistically used in the system in combination with UV lamps. The process eliminates microorganisms including virus and any other suspended particles. It also has an advanced control system and is enabled with the semi-automated operation.
IIT Kanpur provides innovative technological interventions to combat COVID-19
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) researchers are contributing to tackling COVID-19 pandemic situation by designing and developing innovative products and services related to combating the pandemic. These include Positive Pressure Respirator System (PPRS), Preventive and cost-effective surface coated medicated masks and medical wear, N95 facemask, portable ventilators and anti-viral nasal filter.
Exciting work on modelling of COVID-19 at IITK
An interesting and impressive work on modelling of COVID-19 by Prof Mahendra K Verma and his team of Indian Institute of Kanpur (IITK) has been performed. The work demonstrates power-law growth in the spread of COVID-19.
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IIT Ropar designs doffing unit to enable health workers to remove their personal protective gear under sterile conditions
Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar have designed and developed a ‘doffing unit’ to enable health workers remove their personal protective gear under sterile conditions. It was conceptualised after the Centre’s Special Task Force on COVID-19 desired from all Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and other institutions to design a doffing unit for the medical workers. According to experts, personal protection equipment (PPEs) like masks, gloves and gowns worn by doctors, nurses and other health workers have to be removed in a specified way.
IIT Bhubaneshwar develops Pocket Sanitizer
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar has developed a pocket sanitizer. It uses lowcost materials and is easy to fabricate. It is refillable and can be used for dispensing both alcohol-based sanitizer and soap solution. It works as a device for turning switches on/ off and pushing buttons in ATM/elevator. The sanitising liquid contained inside can help in disinfecting the switches and buttons.
IIT Palakkad signs agreement with Kooper Medical Technology Private Ltd for manufacturing affordable respirator masks with replaceable antiviral filters
Kooper Medical Technology Private Ltd, a medical device and equipment manufacturing company, has signed an agreement with Indian Institute of Technology Palakkad on April 22, 2020 for manufacturing respirator masks and filters. IIT Palakkad has shared the know-how to fabricate the respirator mask with replaceable antiviral filters. The structural design and manufacturing process of the respirator mask, details of the filter used along with a coating of antiviral agents and sealing methodology has been developed by a team of faculty, staff and research scholars at IIT Palakkad. Following the know-how process developed at IIT Palakkad, respirator masks with replaceable antiviral filters can be obtained at an affordable cost.
Shoe Sanitisation Facility developed at NIT Jalandhar to fight COVID-19 outbreak
Shoe sole acted as a major source of coronavirus transmission in Italy during COVID-19 outbreak. In an effort to maintain hygiene and reduce the risk of possible virus 38 contamination from shoe sole, the researchers at NIT Jalandhar developed a shoe sanitisation facility that can disinfect shoe sole of a visitor entering into the campus in less than 30 seconds. A solution of 1% Sodium hypochlorite will be used to disinfect the shoe sole. This facility will significantly reduce the possible risk of COVID-19 transmission from shoes of visitors entering the campus.
Hand sanitizer developed at NIT Jalandhar to fight COVID-19 outbreak
A team comprising of Dr Shailendra Bajpai, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dr Kiran Singh, Department of Physics and Dr Vikramjit Singh, Department of Chemistry at NIT Jalandhar has developed low-cost alcohol-based hand sanitizer. It promotes hand hygiene and minimises the transmission risk of COVID-19 virus among the residents of the campus.
Low-cost facemask developed at NIT Jalandhar to fight COVID-19 outbreak
In an effort to help people fight against COVID-19 pandemic, Prof A Mukhopadhyay and Prof V Midha, Department of Textile Technology at National Institute of Technology (NIT) Jalandhar, have developed low-cost facemask to reduce the risk of droplet infection. Facemasks help in stopping large particle droplets, splashes, sprays or splatter, the aerosol that may contain germs (viruses and bacteria) from leaving the wearer’s mouth and nose and may help prevent the transmission.
Prototype of Service Robot developed at NIT Jalandhar to fight COVID-19 outbreak
In an effort to fight against COVID-19 pandemic, Dr Kuldeep Singh Nagla, Department of Instrumentation and control engineering at NIT Jalandhar has developed a prototype model of a Service Robot. The Robot will deliver food, medicine and other materials very efficiently. The wheeled mobile robot will be teleoperated/telepresence based which can be operated through touch screen/joy-stick or mobile phone.
IIT Ropar team of researchers present first-of-its-kind, usercentric app, Corona Sampark-o-Meter
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Ropar has developed a mobile-based app called ‘Samparko-Meter’ which can indicate areas on maps with maximum coronavirus infection possibility. This helps people to estimate the risk of coming into contact with any COVID-19 positive/ highly suspected cases in the last 14 days.
India’s first indigenous antibody-based coronavirus testing kit
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) alumnus from the Department of Biochemistry, Mr Nadeem Rahman, Director, NuLife Consultants and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi has developed India’s first antibodybased testing kit, which takes less than 15 minutes to yield an accurate result. Its cost is Rs 500 at present and the labs charge Rs. 4500 for it. The new kit will provide the general population in India with adequate access to cost-effective testing. Mr Rahman was permitted by the government authorities during the nation-wide lockdown to reopen the lab of NuLife Consultants and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, where he developed India’s first ‘Antibody-based Testing Kit’ to carry out finger-prick tests, which only takes about fifteen minutes to yield accurate results. The testing kits launched in just a span of two weeks have been approved by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and soon the regular production will start.
IIT Ropar researchers have developed a concept ‘WardBot’ to support healthcare and different industries with a focus to minimise human interaction with COVID-19 patients
A team of researchers at IIT Ropar is aiming to develop a wardbot that will deliver food and medicine to COVID-19 patients in their isolation wards. The conceptual design is of a bot that can be instructed to receive and deliver food and medicines and the necessary equipment to every room from a remotely-located control room.
IIT Ropar develops ‘portable negative pressure rooms’ to shield medical staff from coronavirus
IIT Ropar has sent their proposal to the Ministry of Human Research and Development and Office of Principal Scientific Adviser (PSA) for creating negative pressure isolation rooms on a mass scale.
Chemistry Department at IIT Jammu creates hand sanitizers
In view of COVID-19 pandemic which has caused a paucity of hand sanitizers in the market, a dedicated team of researchers from IIT Jammu has successfully produced a costeffective hand sanitizer as per the guidelines laid down by WHO.
Group Testing for COVID-19: How to Stop Worrying and Test More
The article ‘Group Testing for COVID-19: How to Stop Worrying and Test More’ contains a report on the research conducted at IIT Palakkad by Dr Lakshmi Narasimhan on group testing for COVID-19 diagnosis. This article studies the optimal pool sizes and test plans for performing group testing for COVID-19. The effects of pooling and dilution on the sensitivity of the tests were analytically investigated. From this analysis, the optimal pool size to perform group testing to achieve a given sensitivity level was obtained. It was found that up to 57 samples can be pooled together without significant loss in the sensitivity of the tests. Efficient testing plans that reduce the total number of tests performed and increase the number of people tested are provided in detail. The source codes to generate the test plans are also made available online. Contact info: email@example.com
IISER Pune’s efforts against COVID-19: Computer-aided designs for a mechanical ventilator
Dr Naresh Sharma from IISER Pune’s International Relations Office facilitated the contact between researchers at the institute, Dr Umakant Rapol and Dr Sunil Nair, with Dr Prashant Jha, Kings College, London and Nick Booker, Co-Founder of Open Breath and Tech and IndoGenius, who was looking to make Bharucha Ventilator available more widely. IISER Pune then teamed up with Dr Suresh Doravari and student volunteers from IUCAA, Pune to create the designs using a model lent by Capt. Bharucha. The need of the hour is to find a ventilator with a proven design, which has already been used in hospitals and mass produced locally.
CPCB Guidelines for handling, treatment and disposal of waste generated during treatment, diagnostic, quarantine of COVID-19 patients
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), a statutory organisation of Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEFCC) serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to MoEFCC. The principal functions of CPCB are to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention; control and abatement of water pollution; to improve the quality of air; and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country. In order to deal with COVID-19 pandemic, CPCB, on 19 April 2020, has released detailed guidelines for handling, treatment and disposal of waste generated during treatment, diagnostic, quarantine of COVID-19 patients.
NITK Surathkal fights COVID-19
National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK), Surathkal, researchers have so far developed hand sanitizers, 3D-printed ventilator components and Mask N95 filters and face shields to fight against Coronavirus pandemic.
IIT Delhi start-up ETEX launches affordable and effective facemask, KAWACH, to provide protection against COVID-19
ETEX is an IIT Delhi start-up for designing and developing smart textile solutions for healthcare. Considering unprecedented challenges in the supply of PPEs during the COVID-19 crisis, ETEX has launched an affordable and effective face mask, KAWACH, for protecting and safeguarding people from the risk of COVID-19.
Ongoing short-term projects at IIT Delhi
At Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), several short-term projects are going on, which are technology-based interventions related to combating COVID-19. The researchers are developing various products, like low-cost hand sanitizer in the Department of Chemistry for the campus community; Hazmat Hoody-based mask in the Department of Textile Technology; Sandwich ELISA assay for low cost and rapid detection of coronavirus, bioinformatic tools to design a novel peptide for blocking Coronavirus in Department of Chemical Engineering, and so on. The list enumerating all the projects is provided in the website link, where the new projects are being updated regularly.
Ongoing long-term projects at IIT Delhi
At Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), there are several long-term projects going on, which are technology-based interventions related to combating COVID-19. In the School of Biological Sciences, research interventions undertaken are possible nCoV-19 structural proteins inhibitors from Azadirachta indica (Neem); designing vaccine candidates; and so on. In Department of Textile Technology, various projects undergoing are on transparent masks and formulations for viral decontamination of inanimate surfaces. The list enumerating all the projects is provided in the website link, where the new projects are being updated regularly.
IIT-Goa to study if COVID-19 infection is air-borne
At the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Goa, faculty members from multiple departments — mechanical engineering to physics — are collaborating to calculate and predict the extent of travel of respiratory droplets from human sneezing and coughing spread. Definitive scientific data in this direction was required as the COVID-19 pandemic is taking its toll on the world.
United States - India Science and Technology Endowment Fund COVID-19 Ignition Grants
IUSSTEF would select and support promising joint U.S.-India S&T-based entrepreneurial initiatives that address the “development and implementation of new technologies, tools, and systems to address COVID-19-related challenges including monitoring, diagnosis, health and safety, public outreach, information and communication”. These initiatives can originate from government, academic, non-governmental or commercial entities and any combination thereof, provided they focus on applied R&D and have commercial potential. USISTEF would also consider proposals related to technologies/products that can be re-purposed to address COVID-19 in the current scenario. USISTEF encourages projects that demonstrate a high degree of innovation leveraging advances in science and technology. Last date of submission: May 15 2020
NIT Manipur Langol campus setting up 100-bedded quarantine centre
To combat the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19, NIT Manipur, Langol, has set up of 100-bedded quarantine centre using classrooms and hostels of the institute inside the campus.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bhilai
IIT Bhilai fights against COVID-19: Faculty members makes novel face mask and swab
In this war against novel corona virus (COVID-19), IIT Bhilai promises to stand by our nation and to fight this war with our fellow citizen with its full capacity and perseverance. Under the able guidance of Director Prof. Rajat Moona, the researchers, faculty members and staffs of IIT Bhilai have dedicated themselves to develop novel technologies to help the medical doctors and the healthcare personnel.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Palakkad
ITI Limited Palakkad signs MoU with IIT Palakkad to create technological solutions for combating Covid-19
Public Sector Undertaking, ITI Limited Palakkad, has entered into an agreement with IIT Palakkad for jointly developing Electronics & Controls of Portable Emergency Ventilator and Pulse Plethysmograph for Intensive Care Units (ICUs). This prototype will be fine-tuned to make it compatible for ICUs. ITI Limited will also work with IIT Palakkad in developing the Electronics & Controls of Portable Emergency Ventilator.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Palakkad
IIT Palakkad and Kanjikode Industries Forum sign MoU for developing Portable Emergency Medical Ventilator
IIT Palakkad has signed an MoU with Kanjikode Industries Forum (KIF) for jointly developing affordable portable emergency ventilator that can be used in the care of patients with COVID-19. The ventilator will provide control over respiratory rate, pressure, tidal (breath) volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time and ventilator modes.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi
COVID-19-related research and development at IIT Delhi
IIT Delhi faculty members and researchers of different departments have taken various initiatives to combat COVID-19. In alignment with the combating the coronavirus outbreak, related R&D in many areas have been conducted to develop various technological products. These include production of 3-layered good quality surgical masks for hospitals & healthcare professionals, production of high efficiency face masks (N95), development of antimicrobial fabric for protection against hospital-acquired infection, detection assay for COVID-19, 3-ply mask, laminated knitted textile-based coverall, etc.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar
IIT Ropar develops design of Negative Pressure rooms to check spread of COVID19
IIT Ropar has sent their proposal to the Ministry of Human Research and Development (MHRD) and principal scientific adviser for creating negative pressure isolation rooms on a mass scale to prevent room-to-room crosscontamination in hospitals. The negative pressure room ensures that released droplets of the infected do not stay suspended and is sucked out through the ventilation. South Korea has been able to contain the COVID-19 through their mobile and drive through testing facilities which have negative pressure rooms. The testing labs and isolation rooms (which have one or more COVID patient) need to be converted into negative pressure rooms for the safety of health workers.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar
Ventilator that can treat two patients, courtesy IIT Ropar scientists
In a significant achievement in fighting the Coronavirus, the IIT Ropar researchers have now come up with the low cost and portable ventilators that can be easily and quickly manufactured as per the requirement. These ventilators can provide oxygen to two patients at a time.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar
IIT-Ropar develops device to clean, reuse PPE kits
Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar have come up with a technique to clean and sterilize personal protection equipment (PPE) kits, including surgical masks and other protective gears, without causing any damage to those.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar
IIT-Ropar scholar, private engineers group, develop an app to prevent community transmission
IIT-Ropar scholar and some engineers of Lagom Innovation Pvt of different streams have developed an android application that may prove helpful in curbing the community transmission of the virus. The app can identify the suspect within a distance from 1 to 3 meters. The app also maintains a record of the persons coming contact with each other for 14 days and this will and this will make easy to trace out the persons who had come in contact with the COVID-19 suspect.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi
Call for Proposal for COVID-19 Research at IIT Delhi Supercomputer
IIT Delhi is committing a total of INR 1 crore worth of High Performance Computing (HPC) Resource for COVID-19 research to merit based proposals selected from a nationwide call of proposals. All proposals will be evaluated by experts from IIT Delhi. Proposals will be evaluated on first come first serve basis. Deadline for submitting proposals is 15th April.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati Invites COVID-19 Grand Challenge
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati is seeking solution(s) from the students community on measures that can be adopted on priority basis to tackle this pandemic crisis of any one of the broad objectives on Detection of infected persons, Precautions to halt its spread, Newer treatment approaches, Society impact, Behavior changes, Disease outbreak pattern, Resources distribution, Transportation of goods, Migration of humans, Supporting health care workers, Supporting essential services.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai
DST sets up rapid response centre at SINE, IIT Bombay to combat COVID-19
Department of Science & Technology, Government of India in a rapid response to combat COVID-19 global pandemic approved setting up of a Centre for Augmenting WAR with COVID-19 Health Crisis (CAWACH) at a total cost of Rs 56 Cr to scout, evaluate and support the innovations and start-ups that address COVID-19 challenges. The Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SINE), a technology business incubator at IIT Bombay supported by DST has been identified as the Implementing Agency of the CAWACH. CAWACH will identify upto 50 innovations and startups that are in the area of novel, low cost, safe and effective ventilators, respiratory aids, protective gears, novel solutions for sanitizers, disinfectants, diagnostics, therapeutics, informatics and any effective interventions to control COVID-19.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur
Researcher make hand sanitizer for local use
A team of researchers from IIT Kharagpur’s School of Medical Science and Technology quickly developed an alcohol based hand rub following the present scenario of scarcity of hand sanitizers/ hand wash preparations in the market due to their heavy demand. The team created the formulation based on guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization. The Transport Section of the Institute has also developed another formulation.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur
Face Shields for Healthcare Workers During Lockdown
Professor Santanu Dhara and Professor Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, researchers at the School of Medical Science and Technology at IIT Kharagpur have made a prototype to make face shields for healthcare workers from home during the lockdown. The face shield is an essential part of the personal protective equipment (PPE) required for healthcare workers taking care of patients with suspected COVID-19.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur
IIT Kanpur researchers to design a cost-effective virucidal coating of surgical masks for preventive measures against COVID-19
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a statutory body under Department of Science and Technology, is supporting a research by a team of scientists from IIT Kanpur for developing a protective coating that would greatly help in making medicated masks and medical wear (PPE) for fighting COVID-19. The researchers from the Department of Chemistry in IIT Kanpur will be designing the virucidal coating using polymers which can resist attachment of bacteria and virus. An additional protection will be included to the polymer coating using molecules that can either destabilize and/or neutralize corona viruses and other viruses like influenza. The combination of anti-microbial polymer coating and functionalized drugs is also expected to provide a synergistic antiviral effect.