Science for Society

Other Societal Benefits - Energy

Department of Science & Technology

Biogas from Starchy, Sugary and Celllulosic Waste

Anaerobic fermentation of suitable materials such as agro residues, kitchen wastes etc. produce biogas in small quantities useful for house hold applications. This digester is made from locally available components. 

Developed By: Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)

Disposal of Solid Municipal, GramPanchayat, Domestic and Hospital Biomass Waste Through use of Incinerator, And Energy for Heating Water : In present condition solid waste management is a big issue, the solid waste is generated at domestic, commercial and agricultural levels which is to be managed and treated in a proper manner so that it can  be used as energy source and also be less polluting. The traditional systems of dumping solid waste causes land pollution and the process of burning solid waste causes air pollution which is not desirable. Solid waste incinerator is the most useful device for managing wastes and it is the desirable technique which can be used for disposing all types of hazardous wastes. At domestic level such as house, the waste such as plastics, clothes, packing materials, cardboard, paper, garden wastes, Coconut wastes, etc. are not disposed properly. And if this is the condition of a single house then what would be of one city and that of whole country we cant imagine. This waste is just taken and dumped at the places out of city which causes the land pollution or burned which causes the air pollution. This condition can become critical if proper steps are no taken before its too late.

Developed By: Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)

Fuel efficient wood burning stoves

With more than a decade of experience in R&D in fuel efficient cooking technologies, TIDE had designed cook stoves for domestic and commercial use and also made them 'Ready for market.  These stoves are wood burning, fuel efficient and prevent indoor air pollution.  There are stoves for various cooking needs and sizes. 

Developed By: Technology Informatics Design Endeavour (TIDE)

Micro Solar Dome

Dome type day lighting device has a transparent semi spherical dome shaped acrylic material which captures the sunlight as much as possible. The captured light is then passing through tubular shaped pipe having a thin layer of highly reflective coating on the inner wall of the passage . At the end of this passage there is a suitable retrofit to illuminate every corner of the room with good luminosity. There is also a provision to control the amount of light in the room.

Developed By: NB Institute for Rural Technology (NBIRT)

Improved Cook Stove Design for Hand Operated Leaf Plate and Cup Moulding Machine

The hand operated molding machine developed by IIT, Kharagpur were existing in this area. Pressing machine, in which the dye is heated by a stove using biomass as fuel. This machine was tested and found to be easy to operate by tribal families. This machine does not require electricity. It can therefore be operated in any remote place. The heating device is a metallic, biomass burning stove. It produces a lot of smoke and heat at the workplace. Most of the machines are therefore lying idle, without being operated by the potential users.

Developed By: Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI)

Aditya Home Light

Aditya Home light system is a Solar power based distributed system which is operated and maintained by women entrepreneurs. The system consists of a solar power central charging station. The central charging station consists of a custom built 14V storage battery which is charged by two Solar PV panels of 35 watt each. The charging station can charge 10 lamps at a time. The lamps use 6V battery for powering 2 watt LED lamp and give 30 lux at a distance 1.5 meter. These lamps do not have any electronic component and are easy to maintain. The system is owned, managed and maintained by a woman vendor. Before installing and handing over the system, the vender undergoes extensive training at SRI on operation and maintenance of the system. The system operates on a rental basis. The vendor is given 20 lamps along with the charging station. She rents out these lamps at Rs. 2.50 per days. For a set of 20 lamps the vendor earns about Rs. 50/- a day. The user takes the lamp in the afternoon and returns it for charging in the morning. The main beneficiaries of these lamps are children. These lamps have been specially designed for focussed area lighting suitable for study not for special illumination.

Developed By: Society for Rural Industrialization (SRI)

Biomass Charcoal Briquetting from different agrowaste

This technology addresses the management of agro waste generated during agricultural operations and converting them as useful products. This technology was adopted from ARTI, PUNE during 2006 and modified for easy operation. A prototype model kiln was developed during DST Young Scientist Programme with slight modification which was again modified with a portable cylindrical prototype kiln with basal perforated plate and air vents and tested for efficiency. The prototype kiln model (furnace) was fabricated at the local work shop. The advantages of the modified kiln is that the carbonization is uniform, higher char yield, lesser process time, easy to operate and maintain and easily viewable during carbonization. The optimum conditions of carbonization of different biomass, available at different localities and their calorific values were studied. Since some kind of biomass will be available in every location, the beneficiaries can utilize this technology to produce charcoal briquettes from the biomass available in their locality for their income generation. Biomass charcoal briquettes were tested for cooking experiments at beneficiaries’ house, local teashops, laundry and small hotels in Chennai. Apart from fuel briquettes production from charcoal, a value added product from biomass carbon was developed. Along with charcoal powder, other natural ingredients were added and sambrani (Incense) pellets were produced. This technology package was disseminated to beneficiaries through 5 networking NGOs. In a community, if 4 beneficiaries work together, they can make a net profit of Rs 11 /kg of charcoal briquettes and Rs. 173/kg of incense sticks. Awareness programs were conducted to 8 Networking NGOs. The dissemination of the technology is in progress.

Developed By: Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC)

Department of Biotechnology

DBT as nodal agency for Mission Innovation is coordinating national efforts in clean energy

Mission innovation aims to escalate the pace of clean energy innovation to achieve performance breakthroughs and cost reductions to provide widely affordable and reliable clean energy solutions that will revolutionize energy systems throughout the world over the next two decades and beyond.

The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has been identified as nodal agency to coordinate national efforts in clean energy for Mission Innovation activities on behalf of Government of India. DST, Ministry of Power and MNRE are other ministries participating in addressing the challenges. India will be partnering in all the challenges. India will be leading the Smart Grids innovation challenge and co-lead the sustainable biofuels innovation challenge and is collaborating in all the challenges identified.

Indian Minister of Science & Technology and Earth Sciences led an Indian delegation to the Mission innovation Ministerial meet at San Francisco in 2016. During the meeting, the Minister announced India’s current investment ($72 million) and doubling plan ($145 million) in Clean Energy Research by formal announcement on new joint collaborations with Mission Innovation Countries was also made by the Hon’ble Minister.

Rapid and continuous Cellulosic ethanol technology by DBT-ICT Center being transferred to OMCs

The DBT-ICT 2nd Generation-Ethanol Technology was translated successfully to a demonstration scale plant capable of processing 10 tons biomass/day. This plant has been erected by India Glycols Ltd. (IGL) with financial assistance from BIRAC. The future biomass bio-refinery at IGL aims to produce lignin & sugar from biomass waste and convert these to alcohol for production of ‘green’ monoethylene glycol, bio-CNG, and materials that are equivalent to PET, in addition to chemical solvents like furfural and ethyl acetate and even foods like glucose and fructose. Other DBT Bioenergy Centers are developing alternate technologies and enzymes required for breaking down the biomass.

DBT-ICT Centre 2G Ethanol Technology & pilot plant at (10 Tons biomassday) IGL Kashipur

Municipal Solid / Liquid Waste to Energy: DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences, Mumbai is a unique institute that integrates basic and translational science capabilities for bioprocess development and scale up. The 10 ton/day biomass demonstration facility based on the novel DBT-ICT Lignocellulosic Ethanol Technology, the development of novel ‘Hybrid Technology’ for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) and municipal liquid waste (MLW) and the commissioning of 1000L modular photobioreactors designed for autotrophy as well as mixotrophy growth of algae are some of the salient achievements for the Centre.

Algal Bio-fuels

Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels. However, a number of hurdles like strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system need to be overcome for optimum utilization of the technology. DBT is working to support research on some of these challenges. Some promising strains have been identified from bio-fuel repositories of micro-algae & cyano bacteria and taken forward for biomass production at low cost. 

Capability for Life Cycle Analysis developed at DBT-IOC Centre

DBT IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Faridabad is a finest example of collaboration of DBT with an industry. The centre has established protocols for Life Cycle Assessment and GHG emission evaluation of all grades of biofuels. Unique process for CO2 fermentation and conversion to lipids has been carried out and a pilot is under installation. Development of enzymes needed for cellulosic ethanol is a major programme of the centre. It is planning a 10 ton/day cellulosic ethanol green field plant to be operational by Q2 2019.