The North East Region (NER) of India is a biological treasure trove that has not been fully explored. There are, for instance, around 800 medicinal plants and herbs in a remote area of Sikkim alone, their properties known to only a fast vanishing population of local shamans, and their active ingredients largely uncharacterised. Occupying just eight per cent of the country's geographical area, the region is home to about 50 per cent of its entire floristic wealth. Biotechnological research & development work in NER holds the promise of yielding highly profitable patents on endemic species. The rich genetic resources spread across diverse ecosystems and nurtured by indigenous communities, provide ample opportunities for furthering economic development of the region. Thus, NER offers unique potential for biotechnology-based interventions for overall development of the region.