Computer Sciences and Information Technology

Title :

In-situ Monitoring of Fire in Tunnels and Underground Transportation Systems using Distributed Anti-Stokes Raman Thermometry (DART)

Area of research :

Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Engineering Sciences

Focus area :

Fire Monitoring

Principal Investigator :

Prof. Balaji Srinivasan, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras

Timeline Start Year :


Contact info :


Executive Summary :

Early detection and localization of fire sources is a key challenge for extinguishing the fire in a fast and timely manner. Conventional point sensors such as gas detectors/temperature gauges are limited by spatial resolution. Moreover, the complexity of installation, signal monitoring and high installation/maintenance costs prohibit scaling of this methodology. Distributed Anti-Stokes Raman Thermometry (DART) is an attractive approach for the above application because of its ability to make distributed measurements using a single optical fiber. Sensing is carried out using spontaneous Raman scattering in optical fiber, specifically since the anti-Stokes scattering intensity is strongly dependent on temperature. Hence, by observing the anti-Stokes intensity and using optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) principles one can accurately measure the temperature across the length of the sensing fiber with high spatial resolution. A DART based sensor can be used for fire detection by setting alarm levels based on reaching a fixed threshold and/or on a rate of rising of temperature. The proposed work is expected to yield a Distributed Anti-Stokes Raman Thermometry (DART) system based on mode demultiplexing in graded-index few-mode fibers (GI-FMF), which will be thoroughly tested in a controlled testbed for fire detection in tunnels. The key deliverable of the project will be a distributed temperature sensing system based on Distributed Anti-Stokes Raman Thermometry (DART) with a 10 km range and with meter-scale spatial resolution developed for sustainable manufacturing. The specifications of the proposed system are as follows: Sensing range: 10 km Spatial resolution: 1 m Temperature uncertainty: 1 deg C Number of sensing channels: 2 Sensing fiber: Graded Index Few Mode Fiber (GI-FMF) Operating temperature: 0 deg C to 120 deg C


Dr Deepa Venkitesh, Professor, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras

Total Budget (INR):


Achievements :

1. Model and simulation of DART system - Developed GUI capable of simulating the DART system performance 2. Component procurement - Completed component procurement and characterization.

Publications :


Organizations involved