Executive Summary :
Objective: To develop an antimicrobial material to be added as an antibacterial additive with cement.
Summary: Water is stored in concrete as well as synthetic tanks. Frequesnt cleaning and maintenance for the reservoirs are really difficult. Even after that any bacteriological failure if reported the remedial work will accelerate the capital cost to many folds apart from the time taken and the sufferings of public. It is suggested that in addition to regular cleaning and maintenance if the material of the reservoir wall will be antibacterial then it would minimize the biofilm formation thus minimizing the bacterial growth. In urban areas people get treated water but the cases are different in rural areas where water treatment is a question mark. In those cases the tanks are getting frequently contaminated with biofilms (the slimes). So, it is a real life problem and requirements of peoples in their daily lives.
Copper is well known germ killers from centuries. These two wonder metals are incorporated in matrices like layered double hydroxides to give the whole material an antibacterial property. This material when mixed with cement gives the antibacterial property to the cement and material mixture. It is proposed that after construction of the structure of the tank the finishing layer of the cement that comes in contact with water should be mixed with antimicrobial maerial which will give the protection against microbes. Self resistance is the best resistance.
Antibacterial material of Cu incorporated Zn/Al layered double hydroxide was developed through CSIR-EMPOWER project scheme-2010. This project was awarded A+ in the year 2012 by planning committee, CSIR-EMPOWER project scheme. Through this project and post project work (which was the PhD work of a student) the protocol is already developed for 1kg scale material production. This material was mixed with cement in different ratios and the overall antibacterial activity was tested. The results obtained were encouraging and now it is proposed for its scale up studies with demonstration tanks and complete timeline study and data generation.
The scale of production proposed here is 10 Kg initially followed by 50 Kg after successful demonstration of 5Kg samples. The year of project proposed is 2 years with Rs.56.3 lakhs funding.
Some relevant publications of this work is provided below-
1. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Sony Pandey, Effect of molecular dimension on gallery height, release kinetics and antibacterial activity of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) encapsulated with benzoate and its derivatives. Applied Clay Science (Accepted). (IF=3.89)
2. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Sony Pandey, Diptipriya Sethi, Ternary layered double hydroxides (LDH) based on Cu-substituted Zn-Al for the design of e?cient antibacterial ceramics, Applied Clay Science, 165, 2018, 214-222. (IF=3.89)
3. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Sony Pandey, Layered double hydroxides: A brief review from fundamentals to application as evolving biomaterials, Applied Clay Science, 153, 2018, 172-186. (IF=3.89) (Most downloaded paper of the journal May 2018 to till now)
4. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Sony Pandey, Diptipriya Sethi, C. Ganesh Kumar, Comparative Evaluation of Synthetic Routes and Antibacterial/Antifungal Properties of Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Benzoate Anion, Environmental Engineering Science, DOI: 10.1089/ees.2017.0062 (IF=1.57)
5. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Diptipriya Sethi, Sony Pandey, B.K.Mishra, Orientation of organic anions in Zn-Al layered double hydroxides with enhances antibacterial property, Environmental Engineering Science, 34, 2017, 516-527, DOI: 10.1089/ees.2016.0531 (IF=1.57)
6. Geetanjali Mishra, Barsha Dash, Sony Pandey, Prangya Paramita Mohanty, “Antibacterial actions of silver nanoparticles incorporated Zn-Al layered double hydroxide and its spinel” Journal of Environmental and Chemical Engineering,